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Biology SOL Review part 3

deoxyribose the name of the five carbon sugar in DNA
a nucleotide in DNA contains on of the four bases-- adenine, guanine, thymine, or cytosine
adenine binds with thymine
gunaine binds with cytosine
base pairing binding of bases like A and T and G and C- also known as Chargoff's Rules
DNA molecule unzips when... the enzyme helicase breaks the hydrogen bonds between the nucleotides
DNA polymerase enzyme that moves along adding complementary nucleotides according to the base pairing rules
RNA directly manufactures proteins
transcription DNA to RNA
translation RNA to protein
differences between DNA and RNA 1. DNA = 2 strands; RNA= 1 strand 2. sugar molecule: DNA = deoxyribose; RNA= ribose 3. No T in RNA; T replaced with U
mRNA carries instructions for making protein
tRNA carries appropraite amino acid
rRNA involved in protein production
template one strand of DNA acts as this
mRNA is made and processed in the nucleus of the cell and then moves to the cytoplasm
codons mRNA carries the message of DNA in this form which are made up of three bases
tRNA these with the appropriate anticodons bring aminoacids to the ribosome
polypeptide created by amino acid linked by peptide bond
mutation a change in one or more nucleotide bases -caused by mistakes when copying DNA
frame shift insertion/ deletion cause this - everything from that point on is affected
chromosomal mutation change in number or structure of chromosomes
nondisjunction chromosomes don't seperate (ex. Down's Syndrome)
translocation segment moved to non-homologous chromosome
duplication segment repeated
inversion segment inserted into a reverse orientation
deletion segment of chromosomes lost
amniocentesis amniotic fluid taken to look at fetal cells
karyotype paired chromosomes arranged based on shape/ size
PKU body unable to metabolize phenylalanine
sickle cell anemia red blood cells abnormally shaped
hemophilia blood fails to clot- sex link trait
genetic engineering building recombinant DNA (DNA reconstructed from different organisms)
restriction enzymes DNA is cut using these
sticky ends unpaired ends of DNA
Created by: qesarah