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Biology Spring Final

Biology Spring Final 2012

what plant structures have ground tissue? Roots, Stems and Tissue
What observable structures of plants undergo cell division? Tips of roots and stems
What does the vascular cylinder of a root consist of? xylem and phloem
Function of Xylem and Phloem Xylem: moves water Phloem: moves sugars
Where is the vascular tissue found in a root? in the center
What type of plant cells use photosynthesis? mesophyll
When are stomata open? when a plant has enough water the stomata opens during the day
What controls the opening and closing of the stomata? guard cells
What is transpiration pull? when water moves from an area with lots of water to an area without enough. the movement of water from the roots to the leaves because of evaporation. an upward movement.
What is capillary action? rising a liquid up a tube against gravity ser face tension and adhesion.
What are the serile leaves of a flower? sepals and petals
What are sepals? sterile leaves that enclose the bud before it opens.
What is produced when a pollen grain lands near an ovule? a pollen tube down the style
What is seed dormancy? when seeds won't grow when they first mature
When a plant reproduces vegetatively, what will the offspring look like? Identical
What is grafting and budding? produces seedless plants and varieties of woody plants that don't have a strong root system.
What are the male parts of a flower? stamen, anther, filament
What are the female parts of a flower? carpel, ovary, stigma, ovules, style
Describe the process of fertilization and pollination. pollination is when the pollen grain actually lands on the stigma Fertilization begins when a pollen grain grows a pollen tube down the style to the ovary Then the sperm from the pollen fertilizes the egg to produces a zygote the zygote becomes a seed
What are meristems? growth tissue that produce new cells by mitosis
What structure of a plant produces the most hormones? tips of roots and stems
What is the source of ethylene gas? fruit
Powerful auxins can be used as _______? herbicides
What is phototropism? this causes a plant to grow towards the light source
How does gravitropism help a plant? helps the stem grow up and the roots down
Phytocrome is responsible for _________? winter dormancy
What hormones influence the shedding of leaves? auxin and ethylene
What are the levels of organization in the body? cell, tissue, organ, organ system
What are the four main types of tissue and what are their functions? 1.epithelial - covers body structures 2.connective - supports the body and connects its parts 3.nervous - carry messages throughout the body 4.muscle - enables movement
Give an example of negative feedback? When the nervous cells send signals throughout the body that it is cold and needs to be warm.
Define the nervous system -sends signals throughout the body to respond to internal and external stimuli. -controls and coordinates functions throughout the body.
Define the skeletal system. -provides structure to the body -stores mineral reserves -protection to internal organs -provides movements -provides a site for blood cell formation
Define circulatory system. -supplies the body cells with nutrients and oxygen -removes CO2 and other wastes from the body
Define the lymphatic system -helps protect the body from disease -collects fluids from blood vessels and returns the fluid to the circumlocutory system.
Define the excrementory system. -removes waste from the body in ways that maintain homeostasis.
Define the endocrine system. -controls grow development and metabolism -maintains homeostasis.
Define the female reproduction -produces an ova -prepares the body to nourish a developing embryo
Define the male reproduction. -produces and deliver sperm
What is am impulse? when a resting neuron is stimulated by another neuron or the environment
Define homeostasis maintaining internal a stable environment
What is the function of each type of muscle tissue? Skeletal- provides voluntary movement Smooth- moves food through the digestive track and controls blood flow Cardiac- allows the heart to contract
What is the function of the skin? -to protect the body from infection as a barrier -removes waste -regulates body heat -provides protection from the sun
What is respiration? -breathing -the exchange of oxygen between organism in the environment
Where does chemical digestion begin? stomach
What are the main the organs of the excretory system? kidneys
What causes disease? caused by agents. seen as bacteria, any change that causes disruption in the body, materials in the environment
What causes infectious disease? pathogens, Bacteria, worms, fungi, environment
How are infectious diseases spread? contact between people, coughing sneezing, through food and water, infected animals
What is the most important non-specific defense? skin
State the germ theory. diseases are caused by germs
How are infectious diseases spread? contact between people, coughing sneezing, through food and water, infected animals
Provide some examples of infectious diseases? HIV, Flu, colds, strep throat,
What is the 1st line of defense? skin, mucous and fluids for the respiratory and digestive track, stomach acids
What are the body's non-specific defenses? the fist and second line of defense (inflammation)
What does the inflammatory response cause? pain, swelling, fever
What is the difference between passive and active immunity? Active is an immunity in which the body makes its own antibodies Passive is an immunity in which immunity's are antibodies that are produced by another animal that are injected into the blood stream (vaccine)
What is humeral immunity? What cells carry it out? describe it as an antigen enters the body, antibodies are produced as it's detected , they bond together to form an antigen-antibody complex. Then the active B cell makes memory B cells that remember what the antigen is and plasma cells which produce more antibodies
What is cell mediated immunity? what cells carry it out? describe it. cell-mediated immunity is a type of immunity in which the cell membrane of a pathogen ruptures and dies. the bacteria gets eaten by macro-phage through the process of phacoytosis and it kills and digests the pathogen as the macro-phage is interjected wit
What are antibiotics? used to kill bacteria and will only work against bacterial infection.
What is a vaccine? an injection of a mild variation of the disease, allowing the antibodies to remember the form
What is an antigen? what role does this play in the immune response? what triggers the immune system to start working.
What is an anitbody? what role does this play in the immune response? a special protein that the body creates that binds to an antigen.
What is an auto-immune disorder? your body is attack its own cells, it can not tell the difference between non-self cells and self cells
What are the characteristics of all viruses? - non cellular -does not respond to stimuli -reproduced only by infected living cells -made up of proteins and nucleic acids -very small
How are viral infections prevented? How are they treated? prevented with vaccines. treated by your body, there are not always tteatments so you have to wait for your body to fight it.
What is HIV? an std
How is HIV spread? -exchange of body fluids and blood -sex
What cells do HIV attack? attacks the immune system and kills the helper T cells
What are the 3 parts of a nucleotide? phosphate group, Nitrogen base, sugar
What molecules make up the backbone of DNA? deoxyribose sugar
Where is DNA located in Eurkaryotes? nucleus
What process copies DNA? DNA replication
What is the result of DNA replication? two identical double helix-es
When given the following DNA sequence [ AGCTTCGGA ] write the complementary bases? TCGAAGCCT
What is the name of the enzyme in DNA replication? What does it do? DNA polymerase
When does replication take place? during the s phase of interphase
List the difference between DNA and RNA. DNA: double stranded, deoxyribose sugar, has the bases adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine and has the instruction of building proteins. RNA: is single stranded, has a ribose sugar, has uracil instead of thymine and RNA helps construct proteins
List the three types of RNA and their functions. mRNA:messanger has instructions for making proteins from DNA tRNA:tranfer transfers amino acids to ribosome rRNA:ribosomal helps with translation
How many codons are needed to make 6 amino acids. 6
A DNA strand that has the bases [ GGTCGAATCCGT ] will code for how many amino acids? 4
during translation the type of aminio acid that is added to the growing polypeptide depends on what? RNA Polymearse
If DNA has a strand of [TAGCGGCATCGA] write the complementary mRNA strand? What are the amino acids? AUC GCC GUA GCU start codon, alanine, valine, alanine
Describe transcription Include the molecules the parts of the cell where the process occurs and a step by step description of the process. DNA RNA POLYMEARSE DNA mRNA it takes place in nucleolus and cytoplasm. DNA unwinds, unzips and complementary bases join up creating mRNA
Write on example of a missense mutation showing the change in the amino acids. AUC GCC GUA GCU AUU GCC GUA GCU this changes it from a beginning start codon to a isoleucine
Why don't certain mutations effect the amino acid sequence and protein synthesis? because some codons code for the same amino acids.
Define Diploid a cell with complete chromosomes; body cells
Define Haploid cells with half the genetic material of the parent.
Define Gene the basic physical unit of heredity
Define Homozygous having identical pairs of genes for any given pair of hereditary characteristics.
Define Gamete sex cells
Define Codominance when both alleles contribute to the phenotype
Define incomplete dominance when one allele is not completely dominant over the other
Define phenotype physical characteristics of an organism
Define Sex-Linked traits a trait that is related to gender
What does meiosis produce? 4 new cells with half of the DNA of the parent cell
What does crossing over look like?
What process produces gametes? meiosis
Explain how the principle of probability is used in genetics. it shows all over the outcomes that are possible phenotypes
What did Gregor Mendel use to study the inheritance of traits? peaplants
What does a punnet square show? all the possibilities of genotypes
A Redparentflower was crossed with a whiteparentflower to produce all redflowers in the firstgeneration. If two redflowers from the first generation were crossed to produce a 3:1 ratio of red to white in the 2nd generations Then what is the genotype of th
Write an example of codominance. a black chicken and a white chicken produce a black and white speckled chick
Write an example of incomplete dominance. a cross with red and white flowers produces a pink flower
What is an example of polygenic traits? there are three genes that are accountable for your eye color
Write 3 ways that a pedigree chart can be used. 1. family trees. 2. used to find the probability that a offspring will have a disease or disorder 3. shows the family member's with diseases or disorders
On Darwin's voyage on the beagle, What observations did he make? he saw that various types of speices can change from island to island when he was at the galapagos
On Darwin's voyage on the beagle, What species did he study? finches
what did the work of Hutton and Lyle suggest? helped him see that life could change over time and that the earth had already lived long enough to have changed
How did Lamarck explain evolution? that changes such as building muscles could be passed down to offspring and then would eventually change the whole species
What did Malthus suggest? that the overpopulation of people would lead to the world running out of food
At what did Darwin form his hypothesis on natural selection? after he observed all the species on the islands
Define survival of the fittest? the competition for limited resources and creatures that can get those resources will out live those who can't
Define natural selection. when genetic traits are favored to make an organism best suited for survival.
Define fitness. an organism best suited for survival
Define adaptation. a specific trait that helps an organism survive in a specific environment
Define artificial selection. the breeding of animals for desired traits
What was the name of Darwin's Book? on the origins of species
Why was Darwin hesitant to publish it? because his ideas were so radical
What do population's share? all the same species
What are some sources of genetic variation in populations? a mutation
What is a mutation? a change in the dna sequence
What is a gene pool? all the genes in a species including the allels
What is a polygenic trait? a trait that is controlled by two or more genes
What outcomes can a polygenic trait have on an organism? traits result in different genotypes and phenotypes
What causes allele frequencies to change? all based on chance
What is genetic equilibrium? when allele frequency is constant and balanced out
What is speciation? the creation of a new species
Describe the three types of isolation and describe three examples. geographic: separated by geographic boundaries temporal: separated because they reproduce at different times behavioral: they have different rituals involved with mating
What does a directional selection graph look like, where are the most fit people on it? all the way on one extreme
What does a stabilizing selection graph look like, where are the most fit people on it? the average is the tallest
What does a disruptive selection graph look like, where are the most fit people on it? both the extremes are large making very little averages
describe Translation Translation: mRNA,rRNA,tRNA,aminoacids,&polymerse. it happens in the ribosome in cytoplasm. amino acids and tRna translate the massage from mRNA. polymerse and rRNA make proteins based on those instructions producing proteins
Created by: rowanschool
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