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Biology 11 Ch 11.1-3

Animal Structure & Function: The Respiratory System

alveolus a tiny sac, with a wall that is one cell thick, found at the end of a bronchiole; respiratory gases are exchanged in this sac
asthma a lung disease that causes chronic inflammation of the lungs and overproduction of mucus in the lungs
bronchitis a respiratory disease that causes inflammation of the mucous membranes of the bronchi; it is classified as either acute (due to infection) or chronic (due to an irritant)
bronchus the passageway that branches from the trachea to the lungs
bronchiole the passageway that branches from each bronchus inside the lung into increasingly smaller, thin-walled tubes
bronchoscopy a technology for viewing, diagnosing, and treating the tissues and organs of the respiratory system
capillary Any of the branching blood vessels that form a network between the arterioles and venules.
carcinoma a tumour made up of rapidly multiplying cells
computed axial tomography a specialized X ray technique for imaging organs and other tissues in the body; also known as a CAT or CT scan
cystic fibrosis a genetic disease that causes a thick build-up of mucus in the lungs, resulting in infection, inflammation, and damage to the lung tissues
diaphragm a sheet of muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity
diffusion gradient describes the relationship in which a dissolved substance moves from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration
emphysema a chronic respiratory disease that affects the ability of the lungs to expel air
expiration the action of releasing waste air from the lungs
expiratory reserve volume the volume of air that can be expelled from the lungs beyond the regular tidal exhalation
gas exchange the transfer of oxygen from inhaled air into the blood, and of carbon dioxide from the blood into the lungs; it is the primary function of the lungs
glottis the opening of the trachea through which air enters the larynx
hemoglobin an iron containing protein found in red blood cells, which binds to and transports oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body
inspiration the action of drawing oxygen-rich air into the lungs
inspiratory reserve volume the volume of air that can be taken into the lungs beyond the regular tidal inhalation
laryngitis an inflammation of the larynx that can cause the voice to become raspy or hoarse
larynx the structure between the glottis and the trachea that contains the vocal cords
metastasis the spread of cancerous cells from their original site to other parts of the body
pharynx the passageway just behind the mouth that connects the mouth and nasal cavity to the larynx and esophagus
pneumonia a disease that causes inflammation in one or both lungs; it is usually caused by a viral infection or a bacterial infection
residual volume the volume of air that remains in the lungs after a complete exhalation
respiratory system the group of organs that provides living things with oxygen from outside the body and disposes of waste products such as carbon dioxide
respiration all of the processes involved in bringing oxygen into the body, making it available to each cell, and eliminating carbon dioxide as waste
spirograph a graph representing the amount (volume) and speed (rate of flow) of air that is inhaled and exhaled, as measured by a spirometer
two-photon microscopy a technique that uses photons to form images of living tissue up to a depth of 1 mm
tidal volume the volume of air inhaled and exhaled during normal breathing
tonsillitis an infection of the tonsils caused by a virus or by bacteria
trachea the tube that carries air from the nasal passages or mouth to the bronchi and then to the lungs; also known as the windpipe
ventilation the process of drawing, or pumping, an oxygen containing medium over a respiratory surface
vital capacity the total maximum volume of air that can be moved into and out of the lungs during a single breath
Created by: marsenault