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Chapter 2

Microbiology

QuestionAnswer
matter anything that occupies space and has mass
atom a tiny particle that cannot be subdivided into smaller substances without losing its properties
what are the three subatomic particles and what is their charge? - protons (+) - neutrons (no charge) - electrons (-)
atomic number the number of protons
mass number the number of protons and neutrons (approximately the weight of the element)
isotopes variant forms of the same element that differ in the number of neutrons; some have unstable nuclei and emit radiation energy (radioactive)
element all atoms with the same number of protons and have the same chemical behavior
orbitals pathways that represent volumes of space in which an electron is likely to be found, usually in pairs
atomic weight of an element an average of the mass numbers of the various isotopic forms that exist for the element according to their percentage of existence
valence shell holds the outermost electrons that determine the degree of reactivity and the types of bonds an element can make
molecule a distinct chemical substance that results from the combination of two or more atoms
compound molecules that are combinations of two or more different elements
chemical bonds form when two or more atoms share, lose, or gain electrons
covalent bonds form between atoms that share electrons
ionic bonds form between atoms that lose or gain electrons
polarity when a weak differential charge sets up across a molecule due to a significant size difference between atoms (unequal sharing of electrons); this is why there is attraction between molecules
cations positively charged ions
anions negatively charged ions
hydrogen bond a weak type of bond that forms between a hydrogen covalently bonded to one molecule and an oxygen or nitrogen atom on the same molecule or on a different molecule
collision theory states that atoms must come in contact with each other for reactions to occur, which is influenced by 1) velocity, 2) minimum energy needed, and 3) orientation of colliding particles
catalysts substances that increase the rate of reaction; enzymes act as these substances in living cells
inorganic chemistry the study of how water, acids, bases, and salts impact living systems
organic chemistry the study of the role played by complex carbon compounds in living systems
solutions homogeneous mixtures of molecules
solutes substances dispersed in a dissolving medium
solvent the dissolving medium (most commonly water because of its polarity)
acids "proton donors" that dissociate into hydrogen ions and anions
bases "proton acceptors" that dissociate into hydroxide ions and cations
salts dissociate into cations and anions, neither of which are hydrogen nor hydroxide ions
pH scale graduated numerical scale that ranges from 0 (the most acidic) to 14 (the most basic); measures hydrogen ion concentration
functional groups special molecular groups or accessory molecules that bind to organic compounds; they help define the chemical class of certain groups of organic compounds and confer unique reactive properties on the whole molecule
biochemistry the study of organic compounds produced by living things, including: - carbohydrates - lipids - proteins - nucleic acids
organic macromolecules capable of performing complicated biological functions needed in living systems
carbohydrates combinations of carbon and water that form sugars and starches (long polymers of glucose), which serve as energy sources; these compounds are the building blocks of DNA, cell walls, and membranes
what are some examples of monosaccharides? - glucose - fructose - galactose - RNA - DNA
what are some examples of disaccharides? - sucrose - lactose - maltose
what are some examples of polysaccharides? - starch - glycogen - cellulose
glycosidic bonds bonds that form when two monosaccharides are brought together by a dehydration synthesis reaction
lipids fats, phospholipids, steroids, and waxes; these compounds are not soluble in polar solvents (water)
triglycerides important storage lipid that consists of a glycerol linked by ester bonds to three fatty acids
ester bonds bonds that form when a glycerol molecule and three fatty acids are brought together by a dehydration synthesis reaction
proteins predominant organic molecule made up of polymers of amino acids (20 per molecule) that are linked together by peptide bonds
peptide bonds bonds that form between the amino group of an amino acid and the carboxyl group on another amino acid
peptide usually refers to a molecule composed of short chains of amino acids
enzymes serve as the catalysts for all chemical reactions in cells, and nearly every reaction requires a different one
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) the master computer of cells that contains a special coded genetic program with detailed and specific instructions for each organism's heredity; forms a double helix; its nucleotides include: adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine
ribonucleic acid (RNA) similar in structure as DNA, except it usually is single-stranded; its nucleotides include: adenine, uracil, guanine, and cytosine
what are the three major types of RNA? 1. messenger RNA (mRNA) 2. ribosomal RNA (rRNA) 3. transfer RNA (tRNA)
what are the levels of protein structure? Primary --> Secondary --> Tertiary --> Quaternary
adenosine triphosphate (ATP) energy storage molecule of cells made up adenine, ribose, and three phosphate groups, the last two of which are held together by high energy bonds
nucleic acids polymers of repeating units known as nucleotides, whose structures allow for the exact replication of the genetic information in the cells and the exact transfer of the DNA message to the sites of protein synthesis
what biochemical processes and capabilities must be present for something to be considered living? 1. growth 2. reproduction 3. metabolism 4. movement and/or irritability 5. cell support, protection, and storage mechanisms 6. capacity to transport materials into and out of the cell
Created by: 530113