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Chapter 1

Microbiology

QuestionAnswer
microbiology the study of organisms (living things) that are too small to be seen with the unaided eye; plays an important role in ecology; a small percent are pathogenic (disease causing)
examples of microorganisms (microbes) bacteria, fungi, protozoa, algae, helminths (parasitic worms), and viruses that can cause infection
eukaryotic single-celled organisms that possess defined nuclei, various organelles, enclosed genetic material, and a membrane enclosed structure; "true nucleus" (examples: fungi. protozoa, algae, and viruses)
prokaryotes organisms that lack a defined nucleus and organelles, and possess free-floating chromosomes; "pre-nucleus" (examples: bacteria and archae)
bacteria unicellular prokaryote, various in shape and arrangement, that reproduce by binary fission; their cell walls generally contain peptidoglycan and some have flagella for motility
archae prokaryotes that lack peptidoglycan, and live under extreme conditions
which areas of study in microbiology are according to the organisms studied? - bacteriology - mycology - phycology - parasitology - virology
bacteriology the study of bacteria
mycology the study of fungi
phycology the study of algae
parasitology the study of parasites (protozoa and helminths)
which areas of study in microbiology are according to the processes studied? - microbial metabolism - microbial genetics - microbial ecology
microbial metabolism biochemistry of microbes
microbial genetics transmission and expression of genetic information
microbial ecology microbial interactions with each other and the environment
which areas of study in microbiology are according to health-related fields? - immunology - epidemiology - etiology - infection control - chemotherapy
immunology studies how our bodies defend themselves against microbes
epidemiology studies how diseases affect populations and how they might be distributed among a population
etiology studies the cause of diseases
infection control controlling hospital acquired (nosocomial) infections
chemotherapy therapy that uses chemical substances to control diseases
which areas of study in microbiology are according to application of knowledge? - food and beverage technology - environmental microbiology - industrial microbiology - pharmaceutical microbiology - genetic engineering
viruses noncellular pathogenic entities; intracellular parasites
normal microbiota microbes that live on and in our bodies and have a beneficial role in our health
infectious disease when certain microbes (pathogens) grow inappropriately on us and cause disease
emerging infectious disease new forms of microbes causing new diseases or causing new version of old diseases to reappear
scientific method the general approach taken by scientists to explain a certain natural phenomenon, whose steps include: 1. formulate a hypothesis 2. test the hypothesis 3. retest the hypothesis
hypothesis possible explanation for observations
experiment testing the hypothesis to support or discredit the hypothesis
repetitive validation continual retesting of the hypothesis
theory a collection of statements, propositions, or concepts that explains or accounts for a natural event
taxonomy the science of classifying living beings originated by Carl von Linne
what are the three major areas addressed in taxonomy? 1. classification (arrangement of organisms into groups) 2. nomenclature (naming of organisms) 3. identification (examining various organisms and using the traits observed to place them into taxonomic groupings)
what are the taxonomic categories in order? 1. Domain 2. Kingdom 3. Phylum 4. Class 5. Order 6. Family 7. Genus 8. Species
evolution the study of how organisms have changed over millions of years; based on two major concepts: 1. all new species originate from pre-existing cells 2. closely related organisms have similar features because they evolved from common ancestral forms
binomial nomenclature the method of assigning a scientific or specific name that is always a combination of the generic (genus) name followed by the species name (example: "homo sapiens" = the scientific name for humans
Created by: 530113