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Oral Oncology

Vet Dentistry

QuestionAnswer
What portion of overall cancer in dogs is found in the mouth? In cats? 6% in dogs 3% in cats
What is the rate of metastasis of oral fibrosarcoma? Where does it most commonly metastasize to? <20% lungs are most common regional lymph node are rare
What is the local behavior of oral fibrosarcoma in general? invasive
What proportion of oral melanoma tumors are amelanotic? about 1/3
What is the metastatic behavior of oral melanoma? Where does it tend to metastasize? strong predilection to met most commonly to lymph nodes, then to lungs
What factors determine the metastatic rate of oral melanoma? site, size, and grade of tumor
What is the most common feline oral malignancy? SCC
To what degree does oral SCC usually invade bone? highly invasive
What is the most influential factor on metastatic rate of oral SCC? location: low metastatic rate in rostral oral cavity high met rate in caudal oral cavity/tonsils
What is the typical appearance of a "traditional epulis"? similar to gingival hyperplasia, confined to one or two sites at gum margin. slow growing, firm, covered by intact epithelium firmly attached or pedunculated
What is an odontogenic tumor? arises from cellular components of developing tooth structure
What are 3 basic categories of odontogenic tumors and cysts? 1. epithelial 2. mesenchymal 3. mixed
Do Acantomatous epulides metastasize? No (Withrow SA Clinical Oncology text p.307)
What is the most common benign mass in the mouth and from which tissue does it arise? epulis arises from the PDL
What are 4 types of epulides? 1. fibrous 2. ossifying 3. acanthomatous 4. giant cell
What is another term for ossifying epulis? Peripheral odonontogenic fibroma
What is the difference between a fibromatous epulis and an ossifying epulis? the latter is composed of an osteoid matrix
What are 3 alternative names for an acanthomatous epulis? 1. adamantinoma 2. basal cell carcinoma 3. acanthomatous ameloblastoma
Why are acanthomatous epulides considered benign neoplasia? do not metastasize
What is the most common invasive tumor of the dog jaw? acanthomatous epulis
What is a giant cell epulis? How is it differentiated from acanthomatous epulis? similar to acanthomatous type but not quite as aggressive. histopathology
What is the most common tumor of dental laminar epitheliuman? ameloblastoma
What is the common appearance of ameloblastoma? soft and fleshy on gingival surface. May extend much deepier into bone. Slow growing. May be solid but often shows multiple cystic structures
What is the definition of a benign tumor? considered to be nonmalignant: don not destroy tissues from which they originate or spread to other parts of the body
What is the definition of a malignant tumor? demonstrate uncontrollable growth and destructive growth pattern of the tissues of origin and may exhibit a metastasis or dissemination to other parts of the body
Is an acanthomatous ameloblastoma benign or malignant? benign but locally invasive
What is the definition of neoplasia? abnormal growth of a tissue into a tumor that is not responsive to normal control mechanisms: may be benign or malignant
What is cancer? malignant neoplasia
What is the radiographic diagnostic threshold for most standard radiographic detection (i.e. pulmonary mets)? <0.5-1.0 cm
What degree of bony lysis must occur before radiolucency will be radiographically apparent? 40% ....so 'normal' rads do not rule out bone invasion
Why is it important to obtain an large biopsy specimen of oral tumors? because they are often infected, inflamed, and/or necrotic, which will interfere with achieving a representative sample
What is the recommended margin of normal tissue for surgical resection of malignant oral tumors such as SCC, MM, FSA? 2 cm
What are the 3 most commonly employed therapeutic modalities for oral neoplasia? 1. surgery 2. radiation 3. cryosurgery
For which tumors might cryosurgery be effective therapy? lesions < 2 cm diameter that are fixed or minimaly invasive into bone
What is the most common oral neoplasm in dogs? melanoma
What is the second most common oral neoplasm in dogs? SCC tied with FSA
What is the most common oral neoplasm in cats? SCC
In what age group of dogs does fibrosarcoma metastasize more readily? young dogs
In which jaw (upper vs. lower) are FSA most commonly seen? maxilla
What oral neoplasm appears histologically similar to Acanthomatous epulis? SCC
What is the response rate of acanthomatous epulides to radiation therapy? excellent
What is the difference between acanthomatous epulis and ameloblastoma/adamantinoma? Acanthomatous epulis: origin is PDL Ameloblastoma: origin is dental laminar epithelium
How do SCC of the tongue typically behave? Similar to tonsilar SCC (aggressive)
How do melanoma tumors of the tongue typically behave? lower rate of metastasis and better than expected local control compared to other oral locations
Why might tepoxalin have therapeutic benefit in cats with oral SCC? Am J Vet Res 2011 Oct feline oral SCC cells produce 5-lipoxygenases. tepoxalin inhibits 5-lipoxegenase and induces cellular apoptosis
which cells are thought to be a source for development of epithelial odontogenic tumors? JVD summer 2007 rests of Mallasez (remnants of the epithelial layer of hertwig's rooth sheath)
What is the most commonly reported odontogenic tumor in cattle? JVD winter 2013 ameloblastic fibro-odontoma
What is the most common form of ameloblastoma? solid, multicystic
Created by: lamarron