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Bio 212 Exam 3

What areas are included in the digestive system? The oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestines, large intestines, and anus. The salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas are accessory glands.
What is the peritoneum? The serous membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and organs. Most digestive organs are surrounded by this.
What are mesenteries? Sheets of peritoneum that extends from the wall to the abdomen organs.
Where does the greater and lesser omentum extend from? The lesser extends from the liver to the stomach. The greater extends from the stomach, covers the anterior region of the abdomen, and connects to the transverse colon.
What are the types of teeth? Incisors, canines, premolars, and molars.
What are the sections of the tooth? Crown, neck, and root.
What is found in the pulp cavity of your tooth? Blood vessels, nerves, and connective tissue.
What is the purpose of the pharynx? It transports food to the esophagus, leading to the stomach.
What does the esophageal sphincter do? It controls the release of food into the stomach at the cardiac region.
What does the inner mucosa and submucosa layers do? They are layers of the stomach that form deep folds at the inner surface of the stomach that allows for stretching.
What are the regions of the small intestine? 1) Duodenum; the region that receives chyme from the stomach as well as other materials from the liver and pancreas. 2) Jejunum 3) Ileum Most nutrient absorption occurs in the small intestines and structural modifications within the region are designed
What is the purpose of the small intestine? Most nutrient absorption occurs in the small intestines and structural modifications within the region are designed to increase surface area and therefore promote absorption.
What is the ileocecal junction? It is where the small and large intestines meet.
What is bile? It is produced by the liver. It neutralizes stomach acid and emulsifies fats.
What is the importance of the liver? Bile is created there. Glycogen is stored here and detoxification occurs here. The liver is divided into four lobes; major lobes (left/right lobes) and minor lobes (caudate & quadrate)
What are lobules? They're shaped like a hexagon with a portal triad, including a vein, artery, and hepatic duct, located at each exterior point.
What is the importance of the pancreas? It produces a number of digestive enzymes as well as neutralizing buffer (w/ bicarbonate) into the duodenum.
What occurs in the large intestine? The ileocecal sphincter and valve controls the release of material into the cecum of the large intestine. Appendix forms a thin extension off cecum attaching to ascending colon, which leads to transverse, descending , then sigmoidal colon.
What is the enzyme amylase? What secretes it and what does it mix with? It starts the digestion of carbohydrates within the oral cavity via its secretion through the salivary ducts. Amylase is also secreted by the pancreas and mixes with the chyme in the duodenum.
Where are lingual lipase released from? Salivary glands
What enzymes completes the lipid digestion process? Stomach, pancreatic, and small intestine enzymes.
What is a chylomicron? What does it do? It is a ipoprotein formed by triglycerides, phospholipids, and protein. It exits through exocytosis into a lacteal found in the villi. They rravel to the blood and are stored in adipose tissue or are converted to energy by the liver.
What areas are included in the urinary system? It consists of the kidneys, Ureters, bladder, and the urethra.
What is the purpose of the kidneys? It functions to produce urine which travels through the ureters for storage within the bladder. The paired kidneys are located retroperitoneal.
What are the two regions of the internal structure of the kidney? The central medulla and the outer cortex.
What are the two types of nephrons? Juxtamedullary and cortical nephrons.
What is the glomerulus? It is a network of high pressure, fenestrated capillaries that are both fed and drained by aterioles.
What are the two layers of the Bowman's capsule? 1) The visceral layer; consists of podocytes that surround the glomerular capillaries. 2) The parietal layer
How are the water and solute concentration of the filtrate altered? When the filtrate enters through the rest of the nephron where the tubular reabsorption and secretion occurs.
How does the permeability differ in the different regions of the loop of Henle? Water exits the descending limb of the loop of Henle. The ascending limb is impermeable to water however sodium, chloride, and potassium are all transported out of the nephron.
What does it mean when materials are reabsorbed? They are retained by the body and move from filtrate into the interstitial space and then finally into the peritubular capillaries.
What does it mean when materials are secreted? It's a process that occurs in opposition to reabsorption. It allows for the body to add materials from the blood into the filtrate. Materials move from peritubular capillaries to interstitial fluid, and then into the filtrate of the renal tubules.
What is the main purpose of reabsorption and secretion? Alters the content of the initial filtrate and adjusts to help maintain homeostasis.
How does the concentration differ for the cortical region and the medullary pyramid tips? Cortical region has a lower solute concentration which gradually increases towards the tip of the medullary pyramids
Created by: jyang9
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