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Mircobiology

Tortora, Funke, Case, 10th edition

QuestionAnswer
In the lac operon of E. coli, the repressor protein binds to the operator in the absence of lactose
A mutation that results in a codon change from UGU to UGA is an example of a nonsense mutation
Most amino acids are encoded by several different codons. This is referred to as the ________ of the genetic code degeneracy
In 1928, in his discovery of transformation, Griffith did not know that DNA from dead encapsulated bacteria could transform living non-encapsulated bacteria into living encapsulated bacteria
Small stretches of DNA that can move within a genome are referred to as transposons
The tryptophan operon contains genes that encode the enzymes involved in tryptophan biosynthesis. An abundance of tryptophan will "turn off" the operon. This operon is an example of repressible operon
What is the second step in DNA replication? An RNA primer is synthesized.
To begin transcription, the RNA polymerase binds a region on DNA known as the promoter
In transduction, what is required for transfer of genetic material? a virus
True or False: Only one strand of the parent DNA serves as a template for a newly synthesized complementary strand. false
The transfer of genetic information between organisms through processes such as transduction or conjugation is called ________ gene transfer. horizontal
Which means of genetic transfer among bacteria involves a virus? transduction
The antibiotic kasugamycin blocks binding of tRNA-Fmet (Fmet = formylmethionine). From this information, you can conclude that kasugamycin prevents mRNA-ribosome binding in prokaryotes
True or false: Codons of mRNA temporarily bond to anticodons of tRNA during translation. True
The major source of the genetic diversity among microorganisms upon which natural selection operates is mutation
True or false: Mutations are always harmful to cells. False
In E. coli, Hfr cells can pass main chromosome genes to a recipient cell
The lac operon of E. coli is an example of a/an inducible operon that is turned on when lactose is present
T/F: Hfr cells transfer genes to recipient cells in a particular order. True
Genes whose products are produced constantly are Constitutive
T/F: In E. coli, the presence of lactose is necessary and sufficient for induction of the lactose-utilization genes. False
T/F: In prokaryotes, translation of an mRNA molecule can begin before transcription of the mRNA molecule is completed. True
Which domain includes multicellular absorptive heterotrophs? eukarya
What does phage typing do? Phage typing helps identify bacterial species and strains, based on the type of bacteriophage they are susceptible to.
3 characteristics of prokaryotes are ________. use binary fission, possess circular DNA, possess 70S ribosomes
a prokaryotic species is: a population of cells with similar characteristics including structure, morphology, biochemical reactions, surface antigens, and rRNA
You have isolated a motile, gram-positive cell with no visible nucleus. You can safely assume that the cell ________. has a cell wall.
Into which domain would you place an organism that has a single circular chromosome, 70S ribosomes, and ether-linked lipids in its plasma membrane? archaea
In the scientific name, Thermus aquaticus, the specific epithet is ________. aquaticus
The evolutionary history of a group of organisms is called a ________. phylogeny
FISH is used to identify a bacterium by ________. reacting with specific ribosomes
Which kingdom includes multicellular organisms with organelles containing a single circular chromosome, 70S ribosomes, and chlorophyll? Plantae
Plasmids that can exist in disparate species, such as a bacterium and a plant cell, are called ________ vectors, and they can be used to transfer cloned DNA from one type of organism to another. shuttle
When two DNA pieces cut with the same restriction enzyme are combined, sticky ends will ________. associate by complementary base pairing and hydrogen bonds
35
T/F RNA interference (RNAi) can be used to silence a gene, and it holds promise for treating certain genetic disorders and viral infections. true
If DNA ligase was not used in the creation of a recombinant plasmid, ________. base-pairing would occur but the sugar phosphate backbone would not be connected
Redox reactions ___________________________. involve the passing of electrons from one molecule to another.
T/F: All restriction enzymes produce short stretches of single-stranded DNA called "sticky ends". false
Biotechnology is the use of microorganisms, cells, or cell components to make a product
Why are redox reactions considered coupled reactions? If an electron is transferred between molecules, one molecule is oxidized while the other molecule is reduced.
If a recombinant plasmid is put in solution with E. coli, the bacteria may pick up the plasmid by transformation (Transformation involves the uptake of "naked" DNA by a bacterium. This is how the E. coli would take up the recombinant plasmid.)
In genetic engineering, antibiotic resistance is often cloned into a vector to make direct selection of a clone possible
________, useful in recombinant DNA technology, are bacterial enzymes that recognize and cut specific sequences of DNA. (2 words) restriction enzymes
The process of moving a phosphate from metabolic products to ADP to form ATP is called __________. substrate-level phosphorylation.
________ is a technique used to quickly amplify specific sequences of DNA. (3 words) polymerase chain reaction
When a molecule is reduced, ___________________. its electrical charge has been reduced by the addition of an electron.
An ampicillin-sensitive culture of E. coli is transformed with a plasmid that contains the gene of interest plus an ampicillin-resistant gene. If it is then plated on an ampicillin-containing growth medium: only the bacteria with the plasmid will grow
T/F: When bacteria are genetically modified to produce a protein product, technical difficulties arise because that product is not always secreted from the cell. true
rDNA technology is: recombitant DNA technology, genetic engineering. Using microorganisms and entire plants to produce chemicals the organisms don't normally make.
The introduction of external pieces of "naked" DNA from solution into a cell is referred to as ________. transformation
cDNA is made from a mRNA template
The process of making multiple copies of a DNA molecule is referred to as ________. amplification
A plasmid that has been cleaved with EcoRI can recombine with another plasmid that has been digested with EcoRI
T/F: Real-time PCR differs from traditional PCR in that real-time PCR amplification is monitored by gel electrophoresis. False (Traditional PCR is monitored by gel electrophoresis)
To express a human gene in a bacterium, cDNA must be made because bacteria usually cannot remove introns
In genetic engineering, antibiotic resistance is often cloned into a vector to ________. make direct selection of a clone possible
The use of microorganisms, cells, or cell components to make products such as hormones, antibiotics, food, or vaccines is known as biotechnology
DNA sequencing: A process by which the nucleotide sequence of DNA is determined.
reverse transcriptase: An RNA-dependent DNA polymerase; an enzyme that synthesizes a complementary DNA from an RNA template.
Sequencing a genome provides: the order of nucleotides
T/F: If a foreign gene inserted into a plasmid inactivates the beta-galactosidase gene, a bacterium containing that plasmid would form blue colonies on X-gal medium. False - blue colonies form if it ACTIVATES the beta-galactosidase
DNA made via reverse transcriptase from mRNA is referred to as __________. complementary DNA cDNA
restriction enzyme: An enzyme that cuts double-stranded DNA at specific sites between nucleotides.
In nature, the function of restriction enzymes is to destroy phage DNA
Assume you insert a specific gene into a plasmid and use blue-white screening. You plate the transformed E. coli cells on an ampicillin X-gal medium. Cells that produce blue colonies are ampicillin resistant, but do not contain the new gene
The shotgun sequencing technique is used to put RFLPs in the order they occur in a chromosome
Southern blotting is used to identify DNA in a cell
DNA fingerprints are actually restriction fragments
A culture of identical cells, each derived from a single "parental cell," is referred to as a/an clone
If you put the gene for Bt toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis into a tomato plant, the resulting plants will be toxic to insects that eat the plant.
The molecule that seals the gaps between the pieces of DNA in the lagging strand is DNA ligase
Microorganisms that typically colonize a host without causing disease are referred to as the ________. normal flora
Tetanus, which humans acquire from wounds that become infected with the soil microbe Clostridium tetani, is considered noncommunicable. T/F true
John Snow analyzed information on cholera victims. This is an example of ________. descriptive epidemiology (Snow's work is an example of descriptive epidemiology, in which he collected data describing the occurrence of cholera and location of cholera victims and their water source.)
A disease that is constantly present in a population is called a/an ______. endemic disease
Transmission of Plasmodium spp. (malaria) through a mosquito bite is an example of vehicle transmission. T/F False
Florence Nightingale compared disease statistics for soldiers before and after use of sanitation measures. This is an example of ________. analytical epidemiology (Florence Nightingale's comparison of disease incidence and response to sanitation measures is an example of analytical epidemiology.)
During the ________, a person recovers from a disease and the body returns to its pre-disease state. period of convalescence
Health care professionals who fail to use aseptic techniques can cause ________. nosocomial infections
Which is the most common site of nosocomial infections? urinary bladder
T/F Approx 40% of all nosocomial infections are UTIs true
During the prodromal period people experience some early, mild, nonspecific symptoms.
All members of the seven families for whom Mary Mallon prepared meals developed typhoid fever. Mary did not get sick. This is an example of a/an ________. carrier state
The protection from infection received when individuals susceptible to a particular disease live in a population where many individuals are immune is referred to as ________. herd immunity
Live cultures of bacteria that can be ingested and are intended to produce a beneficial effect in humans are known as ________. probiotics
The difference between normal and transient microbiota is that normal microbiota ________. are permanently present
An infection transmitted by a hypodermic needle is transmitted by ________. indirect contact
An infection that does not cause any signs of disease is a/an ________. inapparent infection (subclinical)
Ehrlichiosis is transmitted by Ixodes scapularis ticks. This is an example of ________. arthropod vector transmission
Alfalfa sprouts were responsible for transmitting Salmonella to 32 people in four states. This is an example of ________. vehicle transmission
Robert Koch demonstrated that infectious disease ________. is caused by a microbe growing in the body
________ pathogens are those that do not cause disease in their normal habitat but may do so in a different environment. opportunistic
In biological transmission, pathogens reproduce in the vector. t/f true
In the human intestinal tract, E. coli produces vitamins beneficial to the host and can inhibit pathogen growth. In turn, the bacterium is supplied with nutrients and an environment for growth. This symbiotic relationship is an example of ________. mutualism
Water can serve as a human reservoir of Vibrio cholerae. t/f false
Host cells transformed by viral infection may ________. lose contact inhibition
Hepatitis B virus transmitted by a finger-stick device is transmitted by which portal of entry? parenteral
The presence of endotoxins in a sterile fluid indicates ________. the presence of gram-negative cell walls
The symptoms of protozoan diseases are usually due to ________. metabolic waste products
Symptoms of helminthic diseases are usually due to ________. the presence of the parasite
Viruses can evade host defenses by ________. "hiding" inside host cells where they cannot be detected by the host's immune system
Host cells transformed by viral infection may ________. lose contact inhibition
Hepatitis B virus transmitted by a finger-stick device is transmitted by which portal of entry? parenteral
The presence of endotoxins in a sterile fluid indicates ________. the presence of gram-negative cell walls
The symptoms of protozoan diseases are usually due to ________. metabolic waste products
Symptoms of helminthic diseases are usually due to ________. the presence of the parasite
Viruses can evade host defenses by ________. "hiding" inside host cells where they cannot be detected by the host's immune system
Created by: 745616100
 

 



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