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wk2 9-19 pg33-41


Micro pg33-41 (blank)
q. Special stains such as capsule stains are an example of a negative stain which allows capsule to stand out around organism but Endospore stain use heat to facilitate staining and Flogella stain increase diameter of flagella which _______________? a. makes the flagella more visible.
q.Morhpology of Prokaryotic Cells , Prokaryotes exhibit a variety of shapes most common of which are coccus= a. Shperical
Bacilus= Rod or cylinder shaped
Coccobacillus= short round rod
Vibrio= Curved rod
Spirillum= Spiral shape
Spirochete Helical shaped
Pleomorphic= Bacteria able to vary shape.
Morphology of Prokaryotic Cells, Divisions along a single plane may result in pairs or chains of cells such as Pairs= diplococci
Streptococci= chains
Divisions along two or three perpendicular planes form cubical packets but divisions along several random planes form ? Clusters
Some bacterial live in groups with other bacterial cells which form multicellular associations, these organisms form a swarm of cells which _____________________ and _____________________________. a. Allows for the release of enzymes which degrade organic material and In the absence of water cells for fruiting bodies.
Other organisms form biofilms= Formation allows for changes in cullular activity.
the order from outside in goes glycocalyx, cellwall, cytoplasmic membrane. yes it does.
What is a delicate thin fluid structure, surrounds cytoplasm of cell, defines boundary, and serves as a semi permeable barrier between cell and wxternal environment? Cytoplasmic membrane.
Protiens function as receptors and transport gates , provide mechanism to sense surroundings, and are constantly changing position in the cytoplasmic membrane what is this called? Fluid mosaic model
The membrane is also the site of energy production through a series of embedded proteins.exp are Electron transport chain and ________________________. the proteins are used in the formation of proton motive force, Energy produced in proton motive force is sued to drive other transport mechanisms.
Facilitated diffusion , Active transport, and Group translocation utilize transporter proteins such as____________________ or _______________________. permeases or carriers. most proteins are produced in response to need.
Movement of glycerol into the cell is an example of facilitated diffusion which requires no energy but remember the system can only eliminate a gradient it can not___________________ creat one
In facilitated diffusion the protein allows molecules or ions to enter or leave the cell moving _______________ the concentration gradient. Down
Active transport moves compounds _______________a concentration gradient against
What are the two primary mechanisms of active transport? a. Proton motive force and ATP Bindinc Cassette System.
Efflux pumps used in antimicrobial resistance are an example of ______________________ Proton motive force
Proton motive force transporters allow protons into cell either____________________ or ______________________. a. bringing in or expeling other substances
Maltose transport is an example of what? a. ATP Binding Cassett system
What used binding proteins to scavenge and deliver molecules to transport complex? a. ABC transport( ATP binding cassett system)
q. What mechanism chemically alters molecules during passage? a. Group transport.
q. does the uptake of molecules alter concentration gradient in a Phosphotransferase system? a. No Group transport does not alter the gradient.
q. Phosphorolation changes molecule and therefore does not change sugar balance across the membrane in which group transport? a. Phosphotransferase system.
q. What determins the shape of the bacteria? a. cell wall
q. what does the unique chemical structure of the cell wall distinguish? a. Gram positive from Gram negative.
q. What is the rigidity of the cell wall due to ? a. peptidoglycan (PTG) which is a compound found only in bacteria.
q. Altering series of two subunits N-acetylglucosamin(NAG) and N-acetylmuramic acid (NAM) are the basic structure of what? peptidoglycan
q. joined subunits form ? a. glycan chain
q. WHat is a glycan chain held together by string of four amino acids called? a. Tetrapeptide chain
Our bodies identify peptidoglycan as a foreign substance and develops what? antegens to it.
The interior of a bacteria is ______________. negatively charged.
How many layers of PTG does a Gram positive cell wall have? a. as many as 30 layers.
q. What does the Teichoic acid component of PTG do? a. it gives the cell a negative charge.
q. how many layers of PTG does the Gram negative cell wall have ? a. about three.
q. what are the PTG sandwiched between? a. outer membrane and cytoplasmic membrane
q. What is the region between outer membrane and cytoplasmic membrane called? a. periplasm
q. where are most secreted proteins and proteins of the ABC transport system located ? a. Periplasm
q.Outer Membrane is composed of what? a. a lipid bilayer made of Lipopolysaccharides,
q. What are other names for the outer membrane? a. LPS layer or lipopolysaccharide layer.
q. What serves as a barrier to a large number of molecules? a. LPS
q. Small molecules or ions pass through channels called ? a. porins
q. Which portions of the LPS are medically significant? a. O-specific polysaccharide side chain and Lipid A
q. What way is O-specific polysaccharide side chain directed? a. away from membrane, opposite location of Lipid A.
q. What is O-specific polysaccharide side chain used to identify? a. certain species or strains.
q. What portion anchors LPS molecule in lipid bilayer? a. Lipid A
q. what plays a role in recognition of infection such as a Gram negative ingection of the blood stream? a. Lipid A
Created by: tim sopp