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wk2 9-18, pg 12-27

micro all pages from 12-27

Micro week 2, Sep 18,07 pages 12-13. VIRUSES, VIROIDS, PRIONS.
q. What are non-living elements called agents(not organisms) that usually consist of only a few molecules found in living cells? a. Viruses, Viroids, Prions.
q. What contains a protien coat surrounding nucleic acid? a. Viruses.
q. What must have host machinery to replicate and are inactive outside of host? a. Viruses termed OBLIGATE INTRACELLULAR PARASITES.
q. Can all forms of life be infected by viruses? a. Yes.
What freqently kills its host cells? a. Viruses
q. What contains no protective protein coat, consists of a single short piece of RNA, require host cell for replication and generally cause plant diseases? a. Viroids.
q. What are Prions? a. infectious proteins that contain no nucleic acids.
q. what are prions responsible for? a. neurodegenerative diseases.
q. What are viruses measured in? a. nanometers
q. What are bacteria measured in? a. micrometers
micro 9-27 pg14-27 (blank)
Macromolecules consist of repeating subunits called ? a. monomers.
q. what are the three major classes of biologically important macromolecules? a. proteins, polysacchrides(carbohydrates), lipids, nucleic acids.
q. RNA and DNA are composed of monomers and polymers called? a. nucleotides and polynucleic acids.
q. what are large molecules formed by joining together the same molecules(subunits)? a. Polymers, all macromolecules are polymers.
q.Joining subunits. what involves a chemical reaction in which H20 is removed? a. Dehydration synthesis.
q. what is the reverse of dehydration? a. Hydrolytic reaction
q. the major constituent of most cells is >50% _____________. a. dry weight.
q. the function of a protein is determined by what? a. its shape.
q. two amino acids are joined by what kind of synthesis reaction? a. dehydration synthesis reaction.
q. what is a Primary sturcture? a. a sequence of amino acids, in large part determines other protein features.
q. Describe a secondary structure. a. primary structure folds into a new configuration. the new configuration forms from weak bonds formed between amino acids.
q. Describe a tertiary structure. a. three dimensional structure with two major shapes. either a Globular or a Fibrous.
q. when does a protein become a functional protein? a. when it becomes a tertiary structure.
q. what is two or more proteins joined together to form a multimeric protein? a. Quaternary
what is a dimer? a. a two protein Quaternary structure.
q. what is a trimer? a. a three protein quaternary structure.
q. what is a shape change that causes protein to stop functioning? a. Denaturation.
q. what dertermines if denaturation can be reversible or not? a. environment determines reversibility.
q.what are the four important roles carbohydrates play in all organizms? a. store energy, for energy, form part of nucleic acids, form part of bacterial cell wall.
q. carbohydrates contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in a _______________ ratio. a. 1:2:1 ratio
q. what is a large molecuel made of carbohydrate molecules? a. Polysaccharide.
q. what are short chains of carbohydrates? a. Disaccharide
q. what is a monosaccharide? a. a single carbohydrate molecule.
q. how are monosaccharides classified? a. by number of carbons in molecule.
q. what are the most common monosaccharides? 5 and 6 carbon sugars
q. 5 carbon sugars are called? a. pentose
q. some examples of pentose are? a. Ribose and deoxyribose.
q. what is a six carbon sugar? a. Hexose
q. what are three examples of hexose? a. Glucose, furctose and glactose.
q. what is produced by joining two monosaccharides through dehydration synthesis? a. Disaccharides
q. what are the two most common disaccharides in nature? a. Lactose and Sucrose
q. Glucose+ gaLactose= a. Lactose
q. Glucose + fructose = a. sucrose
q. Glucose + glucose = a. maltose
q.what are three functions polysaccharides serve? a. Polysaccharides serve as Cellulose, Glycogen, and Dextran.
q. what is the most abundant organic molecule on earth? a. Cellulose
q. what is a polymer of glucose molecules and is the principle constituent in plant cell walls? a. Cellulose
q. what is the corbohydrate storage molecule of animals and some bacteria and is a polymer of glucose subunits? a. Glycogen
q. what is a storage molecule for carbon and energy for some bacteria and is a polymer of glucose subunits? a. Dextran
starch is also a polysaccharide made up of glucose subunits. (blank)
q. what is only slightly soluble in water but is very soluble in organic solvents such as ether, benzene, and chloroform. a. Lipids, due to their hydrophobic nature.
q. Simple lipids contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. the most common are the fats, which are a combination of _____________ and __________________. a. fatty acids and glycerol (triglyceride).
q. what is a monoglyceride? a. only one fatty acid bound to a glycerol.
q. what is a Diglyceride? a. two fatty acids joined together.
q. Unsaturated fats are hydrocarbon protions containing at least one double bond and are ____________ at room temp. often called oils. a. liquid.
q. Polyunsaturated fats have several dbl bonds, some examples include? a. sunflower oil, safflower oil, and corn oil.
q. All members of the steroid grp have a four membered ring structure and if a hydroxyl grp is attached to one of the rings, the steroid is called a ____________. a. a Sterol is a steroid with a hydroxyl added to it.
q. where are sterols found? a. sterols are found in cytoplasmic membrane of eukaryotic cells.
q. What contain fatty acids and glycerol as well as elements other thatn carbon, hydrogen and oxygen? a. Compound lipids, exp. include phospholipids, lipoproteins etc.
q. Phosphate is linked to a variety of other polar molecules, such as alcoohol, sugar, or certain amino acids. This is refered to as a ______ _________ ___________. a. a polar head group.
q. What is a long chin fatty acid linked covalently to a long chain alcohol by an ester bond? a. Waxes
q. why are waxes completely insoluble? a. they do not have hydrophilic heads thus are completely water insuluble.
q. what makes Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant to drying? a. it is surrounded by a waxy wall (Mycolic acid)
q. what are two types of nucleic acid? a. DNA ( carrie genetic code in all cells) and RNA( decodes sequence of amino acids to produce proteins).
q. what are the sub units of nucleic acids? a/. the subunits of nucleic acids are nucleotides.
q. how is DNA information stored? a. in sequence of nucleotides.
q. what are composed of a nitrogenous base, a five carbon sugar molecule and a phosphate molecule? a. Nucleotides are composed of these three units.
q. the nitrogenous base contains purines and pyrimidines. (blank)
q. what are the two purines? a. Adenine and Guanine.
q. What are the Pyrimidines? a. thymine and cytosine
q. Nucleotides are joined through what kind of bonds? a. covalent
q. how is the bond created between the phosphate of one nucleotide and the sugar of the adjacent nucleotide? a. through dehydration synthesis.
q. what acts as a bridge between the number 3 carbon of one sugar and the number 5 carbon of the adjacent? a. Phosphate molecule, resulting in a sugar phosphate backbone.
q. DNA in living organisms is a double stranded helicle molecule, strands are held together by hydrogen bonding between ? a. the nitrogen bases.
q. In the specific pairing between bases Adenine binds to _____________. a. Thymine A-T or T-A
q. Guanine binds to ______________. a. Cytosine G-C or C-G, remember bases are complementary.
Remember RNA is a single stranded molecule involved in what? a. RNA is involved in decoding DNA.
q. RNA structure is similar to DNA but differs in at least 4 ways, what are they? a. Thymine is replaced by uracil(there is no thymine base in RNA), the sugar is ribose in place of deoxyribose, RNA is generally shorter, it exists as a single stranded molecule not double stranded.
RNA is for protein synthesis. (blank)
Created by: tim sopp