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Comm. Diseases

Communicable Diseases

Passive Immunity Temporary; mother to fetus or from immune globulins being given.
Active Immunity Stimulation of the body's own immune system to produce antibodies; such as acquired by having the disease or thru immunization.
Varicella transmission Direct contact/airborne--Day before rash, until lesions crusted over
Varicella manifestations Prodromal: fever, malaise. Acute: rash that progresses from macule to vesicles. Intense itching.
Varicella Tx Special skin care, non-aspirin antipyretics
Varicella potential complications Encephalitis, monitor for headaches and vomiting. Any changes in neurological status mus be treated immediately.
Diptheria transmission Droplet, direct contact--Variable comm. period (2-4 wks)
Diptheria isolation Droplet precautions
Diptheria manifestations Low grade fever, malaise, gray membrane on tonsils (pt. will die of airway obstruction as result), neck edema ("Bull's neck")
Diptheria Tx Antibiotics, complete bed rest, trach. for airway obstruction, O2 prn
Diptheria potential complications Airway obstruction, myocarditis
Pertussis transmission Direct or indirect contact (contaminated articles).--Greatest during early symptoms of sneezing, cough.
Pertussis isolation Droplet precautions
Pertussis manifestations Catarrhal stage: upper resp. infection, dry hacking cough for 1-2 wks. Paroxysmal stage: coughing spasms which occur mostly at night, high pitched, crowing sound- may last 4-6 wks
Pertussis Tx Reduce environmental factors that produce coughing (dust, smoke), cool mist humidifier, encourage fluid intake.
Pertussis complications Pneumonia, seizures, otitis media
Tetanus transmission Contaminated soil-- comm. period unknown, anywhere from 3 days-3wks, can be longer. No isolation.
Tetanus manifestations Acute infectious disease, headache, irritability, stiffness of jaw and neck, muscle spasms
Tatanus Tx Wound debridement, tetanus immune globulin, or tetanus toxoid booster within 72 hrs after injury
Tetanus complication Seizures
Meningitis transmission Resp. secretions--comm. period unknown
Meningitis isolation Droplet precautions
Meningitis manifestations Abrupt high fever, chills, headache, vomiting, Nuchal rigidity, changes in neurological functioning
Meningitis Tx Dx via lumbar puncture, aggressive antibiotics, maintenance of ventilation, reduction of increased intracranial pressure.
Meningitis complications Seizures, neurological deficits
Rubeola transmission Airborne--several days before rash to 5 days after rash appears
Rubeola isolation Airborne
Rubeola manifestations Prodromal: fever, lethargy, cough, photophobia, koplik spots on buccal mucosa. Acute: red flat rash lasting approx. 1 wk, begins on face and spreads downward.
Rubeola Tx Manage temp, cool mist vaporizer, keep room dim
Rubeola complications Pneumonia, otitis media, encephalitis.
Parotitis (mumps) transmission Droplet, direct contact--1 wk before swelling, 1 wk after
Parotitis isolation Droplet precautions
Parotitis manifestations Prodromal: headache, fever, earache. Acute: swelling of parotid glands
Parotitis Tx Nonaspirin antipyretics, cool liquids, soft foods, avoid sour foods
Parotitis complications Most common, meningitis. Others: orchitis, hearing loss
Rubella transmission Nasopharyngeal secretions, spread by droplet--1 wk before to 5 days after onset of rash
Rubella isolation Droplet precautions
Rubella manifestations Prodromal: low grade fever, sore throat, cough. Acute: flat red rash begins on face and spreads to rest of body, rash lasts 3 days
Rubella Tx Non-aspirin antipyretics, analgesics. AVOID EXPOSURE DURING PREGNANCY
Rubella complications Most benign of all childhood comm. diseases, greatest danger. Teratogenic effects on the fetus
Poliomyelitis transmission Direct contact (fecal oral-pharyngeal secretions--Comm. period unkown. 1-6 wks
Polio isolation Tier one
Polio manifestations Fever, general malaise, followed by stiffness of neck, trunk, and limbs, progresses to flaccid paralysis
Polio Tx Supportive care, bed rest during acute phase, physical therapy following acute phase
Polio complications Permanent paralysis, resp. arrest
Scarlet Fever transmission Nasopharyngeal secretions from infected persons--comm. period, during incubation period and illness, may persist for months
Scarlet Fever isolation Droplet precautions
Scarlet Fever manifestations Abrupt high fever- 102-104 degrees, chills, deep red rash, slightly raised and feels like sandpaper, strawberry tongue
Scarlet Fever complications Otitis media, glomerulonephritis, rheumatic fever= cardiac complications
Fifth Disease (slapped cheek disease) transmission Unknown--comm. period uncertain, before onset of symptoms
Fifth Disease manifestations Slapped face appearance, progresses to rash on upper and lower extremities. Lasts approx. 1 wk, may subside and reappear with exposure to heat or cold.
Fifth Disease Tx Antipyretics, analgesics, anti inflammatory med.
Fifth Disease complications Fetal death, arthritis, anemia
Roseola transmission Unknown--comm. period unknown, isolation- none
Roseola manifestations Abrupt high fever- 103-105, rosy pink rash appears on trunk, face and extremities. Usually limited to children between 6 mo to 3 yrs.
Roseola Tx Antipyretics, supportive care
Roseola complications Febrile seizures, dehydration
Created by: fulk_90