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EQ dental anat

2011 AAEP Focus on Dentistry & other articles

Of what origin is the tissue that initiates tooth formation? epithelial
Within the tooth bud, which type of cells (origin) are present and what do they differentiate into? epithelial cells: ameloblasts mesenchymal cells: odontoblasts + cementoblasts
What initiates tooth formation? Interaction between the ameloblasts and odontoblasts
What component of the dental bud dictates the final shape of a tooth? enamel organ (epithelial origin)
From where is the blood supply of developing teeth derived? dental sac
in addition to the dental sac, where else does blood supply come from? blood supply also perforates the apical aspect of the infundibulum in young equine cheek teeth and these apical infundibular blood vessels may remain for a couple of years after dental eruption THIS IS REFUTED BY INFUNDIBULAR HISTOMORPHIC STUDY DONE
What is Equine type 1 enamel? main constituent of the cheek teeth, consists of parallel rows of prisms lying between parallel, dense interprismatic plates of enamel (very hard)
What is the disadvantage of hardness due to the parallel orientation of type 1 enamel prisms and interprismatic enamel? it is more susceptible to developing fractures
What is Equine type 2 enamel? solely consists of prisms (rounded on cross section) which are oriented in three directions.
How does type 2 enamel compare with type 1? type 1 is harder
Where is type 2 enamel found on equine teeth? incisors
Where is type 1 enamel found on equine teeth? cheek teeth, infolded
What is the ratio of peripheral enamel length to tooth perimeter in mandibular cheek teeth? 1.87
What is the ratio of peripheral enamel length to tooth perimeter in maxillary cheek teeth? 1.48
What structures exist on the maxillary cheek teeth to make up for less peripheral enamel infolding? infundibulae
What is senile excavation? infundibula can wear out (often in the 09 or 10) causing the adjacent unsupported primary and secondary dentine to wear very fast and the tooth to become hollow
What happens to the degree of infolding present on the periphery of teeth more apically? age less enamel infolding near apices
Which type of dentin is most porous? secondary
Where is irregular secondary dentin deposited? laid down subocclusally in order to prevent exposure of the pulps caused by dental attrition
Where is regular secondary dentin deposited? onto the inner dentinal walls by the odontoblasts that cover the pulp tissue
What are 2 types of tertiary dentin? repairative reactionary
How many pulp horns do incisors, canines and PM1 have? one
How many pulp horns do the 07, 08, 09, & 10s have? 5
How many pulp horns do the 06's have? six
How many pulp horns do the mandibular 11's have? seven
How many pulp horns do the maxillary 11's have? eight
What is the average thickness of subocclusal secondary dentin? 1 cm this is debated among studies. some say it is less
What is the variability/range of thickness of subocclusal secondary dentin? 2 mm to 33 mm
What is the variation in the distance between the pulp and the mesial or distal tooth margin? 1.3 to 10.8 mm
at which margin (mesial vs. distal) is the dentin thickness between the interproximal space and pulp tissue usually greater? mesial
What is is the main driver for deposition of subocclusal secondary dentine? occlusal stimulation
What type of dental tissue comprises the primary occlusal surface of newly erupted teeth? cementum
What type of feed do horses eat faster (i.e. more chews per minute)? grass 100-105 chews/minute hay 58-66 chews/minute
At what age do the deciduous 01's erupt? during the first week of life
At what age do the deciduous 02's erupt? 4-6 weeks
At what age do the deciduous 03's erupt? 6-9 months
At what age do the canine teeth erupt? 4-6 years
At what age do the '05s erupt? ~ 1 year
At what age are the deciduous 06's shed? ~2.5 years
At what age do the 09's erupt? 1 year
At what age do the 10's erupt? 2 years
At what age do the 11's erupt? 3-4 years
What is the average rate of eruption of horse teeth? 2-3 mm/year
How many roots to maxillary cheek teeth have? 3
How many roots to mandibular cheek teeth have? 2
How many roots do the mandibular 11's have? 3
What is the width of the maxillary arcades relative to the mandibular arcades? ~23% wider on avg
What are the 3 major paired salivary glands of equids? JVD Spring 2013 parotid, mandibular, polystomatic sublingual
Where are minor salivary glands present in horses? JVD Spring 2013 Lips, tongue, palate, buccal regions
How much saliva does a correctly fed/hydrated horse produce? JVD Spring 2013 10-12 L
What is another name for the parotid salivary duct? JVD Spring 2013 Stenon's duct
In what age group of horses is the height of the curve of spee smaller? JVD Winter 2009 older horses
In which part of the horse mouth are chewing forces the greatest? why? 2009 J biomech masticatory forces increased from rostral to caudal. due to distinct anatomical features of the equine dentition, i.e. the Curve of Spee, the position of the teeth, and the length of the mandible
What changes occur in chewing forces as horses age? why? 2009 J biomech masticatory forces decreased with age. This decrease was due to the reduced height of the Curve of Spee in older horses.
What is the widely accepted sequence of eruption for Equine Cheek Teeth? 2009 Eq Vet J M1, M2, PM2, PM3, M3, PM4
What are widely accepted emergence times of permanent PMs in horses? 2009 Eq Vet J 2.5 years for PM2, 3 years for PM3 and 4 years for PM4
Which tend to erupt slightly sooner? Mandibular or maxillary permanent premolars? 2009 Eq Vet J Mandibular deciduous premolars were removed slightly earlier than their maxillary counterparts
What findings evidencing sexual dimorphism in the timing of premolar ‘cap’ removal were noted? 2009 eq vet j fillies tend to shed their premolar ‘caps’ more than a month later than colts
What change is seen in the height of the curve of spee as horses age? JVD winter 2009 it gets shorter
what correlation is noted between the height of the curve of spee and the masticatory forces? JVD winter 2009 the higher the curve of spee, the larger the masticatory forces on the most caudal cheek teeth (and vice versa)
what negative consequences are reported in humans when the curve of spee is leveled? JVD winter 2009 craniomandibular and myofascical dysfunctions with symptoms including pain, loss of hearing, vertigo, & others
Which tooth is the most consistent predictor of mandibular cheek tooth OA? JVD summer 2004 307
Does CT OA change with the age of the horse? JVD summer 2004 no
Is the incisor separation method an accurate predictor of CT OA? JVD summer 2004 only when the lines used in this article are utilized (the 'other' current recommendation is inaccurate)
What is protuberant tooth shaft morphology? Langeneckert 2018 MITSE the reserve crown has a cross sectional portion with a larger diameter or an off-set center relative to the space occupied by the clinical crown of the same tooth
How long do equine cheek teeth apices continue to develop before closing down after eruption? about 2 years
what is the mean thickness of subocclusal secondary dentin in cheek teeth 9-11 mm
What is the normal depth of the equine gingival sulcus? 3-5 mm
What is the generally accepted order of permanent CT eruption in horses? M1, M2, PM2, PM3, M3, PM4
What is the reported horse age at eruption of permanent PMs? PM2: 2.5 yrs, PM3: 3 yrs, PM4; 4 yrs
Which gender of horse typically erupts permanent dentition earlier, at a younger age? Male
In which dental arcades (maxillary vs. mandibular), do permanent cheek teeth erupt sooner? mandibular
What is the distinguishing anatomical difference between primary and secondary dentin? primary dentin has peritubular (more appropriately termed intratubular) dentin which narrows the tubular lumen as it is deposited inside them at the periphery (creating a cone shape)
Why is the tertiary dentin at the core of the dental star generally devoid of pigment? small diameter tubules, in an irregular arrangement, are generally discontinuous if those of the surrounding secondary dentin
what is the relative tubular density of primary dentin compared to secondary dentin? secondary dentin has more tubule density compared to primary dentin
What change occurs in the curve of spee as horses age? it gets shorter/smaller
Where is type 1 enamel found on equine teeth? near DEJ, on medial aspects of enamel folds. CT Easly p.56
Where is type 2 enamel typically found in equine teeth? near CEJ (Easly p56)
What is the primary type of enamel in equine incisors? type 2
what feature of type 2 enamel prevents microfracture, which type 1 enamel doesn't have? decussation: interweaving with changes of direction of bundles of enamel prisms that run in 3D
what happens to the distance between the pulp horn and and occlusal surface and the distance between the pulp horns and the interproximal surface as horses age? the distance between the pulp horn and the exterior surfaces of the tooth decrease as a horse ages (Bettiol 2011)
What range was the thickness of tooth structure between the interproximal surface and the pulp horn in Betiol's study 2011? 1.3-10.8 mm
How many of the pulp horns were less than 3.5 mm distance from the interpoximal surface in Bettiol's study 2011? 5.3%
In which Cheek teeth are the pulp horns typically closer to the dental surfaces compared to the other teeth? triadan '09s
Which interproximal tooth surface caries a greater risk of pulp exposure if it is cut for diastema widening? distal interproximal tooth surfaces tend to be closer to pulp horns
In the EQ PDL, as it matures, what changes are seen in the collagen fascicle diameter and density? increase (Staszyk JVD 2006)
what aging change of the PDL collagen is seen in the angle of the fascicles with respect to longitudinal tooth axis ? becomes more obtuse with increased age (Staszyk JVD 2006))
Created by: lamarron
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