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MicroBiology Chp 1

MicroBiology Chapter One Prof Venuti

QuestionAnswer
Most microorganisms are not harmful and play a vital role in maintaining our global environment in the following FIVE ways: 1.Decompose organic waste 2.Are PRODUCERS in the ecosystem by photosynthesis 3.Produce industrial chemicals such as ethyl alcohol and acetone 4.Produce fermented food ie:vinegar,cheese, and bread 5Produce products used in manufacturing and treatment
Naming and Classifying Microorganisms is Called and was established by: The system of naming (nomenclature) we now use was established by Carolus Linnaeus
Scientific nomenclature assigns each organism two names, what are they? The genus, the first name, is always capitalized, and the specific epithet (species),which follows, is not capitalized.The scientific names are always either italicized or underlined
The Three Domains are? Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya
Name Archaea: Cell type, Cell wall and Antibiotic Senstivity: Prokaryote, Varies in composition; Contains no peptidoglycan, No Antibiotic Sensitivity
Name Bacteria: Cell type, Cell wall and Antibiotic Senstivity: Prokaryote, Contains peptidoglycan, Yes antibiotic sensitive
Name Eukarya: Cell type, Cell wall and Antibiotic Senstivity: Eukaryote, Varies in composition; Contains carbohydrates, No Antibiotic Sensitivity
Name the Five Kingdoms 1. Prokaryotes 2. Fungi 3. Protists (protozoa) 4. Plants 5. Animals
Name Two Cell Types, Nucleus Yes or No? 1. Prokaryotic Cells have NO true nucleus or nuclear membrane. 2. Eukaryotic Cells have a true nucleus and nuclear membrane.
Describe Bacteria a. Unicellular prokaryotes (genetic material is not enclosed in a nuclear membrane) b. Many shapes: cocci (spherical), bacilli(rodlike), and spiral c. Motile or Nonmotile d. Reproduce by:Binary Fission e. Peptidoglyan incell wall f. Diverse nutrition
Describe Archaea: a. Prokaryotes b. Lack peptidoglycan, live in extreme environments c. Include methanogens, extreme halophiles, extreme thermophiles d. unusual metabolisms high temps, salt envir. and methane
Describe Fungi: a. Unicellular or multicellular eukaryotes b. Chitin in their cell wall c. Include molds(multicellular,lots of filaments), mushroom, and yeast(unicellular reproduce by budding) d. Obtain nutrients through special structures (hyphae)
Describe Protists or Protozoa: a. Unicellular eukaryotes b. Classified by locomotion using pseudopods, flagella or cilia c. Include amoeba, paramecium d. Obtain nutrients by ingesting other organisms or dead organic material-phagocytosis, pinocytosis e. reproduce asexuallyorsexuall
Describe Algae: a. Unicellular or multicellular photosynthetic eukaryotes b. Cellulose in their cell wall c. uses Photosynthesis for energy d. Produce Molecular oxygen ans organic compounds
Describe Viruses: a. Noncellular; obligate intracellular parasites b. EITHER DNA or RNA core (never both) surrounded by a protein coat.(sometimes this coat is encased in an additional layer called an envelope).
Describe Multicellular Animal Parasites: a.Eukaryote B. Multicellular Animals c.Parasitic flatworms and roundworms are called Heminths
Robert Hooke is known for: Cell Theory: All living things are composed of boxes or cells.
Antoni van Leeuwenhoek is known for: Observed LIVE MICROBES with a simple magnifying lens First to see live microbes
Francesco Redi is known for: Debate over Spontaneous Generation Maggots/Meat in 6 jars experiment.
John Needham is known for: Debate over Spontaneous Generation Found that after he heated nutrient broths - cooled solutions contained microbes
Lazzaro Spallanzani is known for: Debate over Spontaneous Generation Suggested that Needhams results were due to microbes in the air entering the broth
Rudolf Virchow is known for: Hypothesis of Biogenesis: Living things only arise from living cells
Louis Pasteur is known for: a. Disproved Spontaneous generation b. S-shape flask trapped airborne microbes c. Pasteurization (prevention of microbe contamination) d. Fermentation (conversion of sugar to alcohol)
The Germ Theory of Disease states: (and who proved it?) That a specific microbe can invade other organisms and causes a specific disease. Proved by Robert Koch
Joseph Lister is known for: He applied phenol or carbonic acid disinfectant to surgical dressings.
Ignaz Semmelweis is known for: He showed the importance of handwashing to reduce puerperal (childbirth fever) infections.
Robert Koch in 1876 demonstrated that certain bacteria in the blood of cattle that had died of __________________ were the cause of death. Bacillus anthrcis, or anthrax
Define Koch's FOUR Postulates 1.The SAME path mustbe isolated in every case of disease. 2.The path mustbe isolatd from animal+grown in PURE culture. 3.The path must CAUSE the disease when inoculatd in healthy animal 4.The path mustbe isolatd from animal+mustbe the ORIGINAL organism
Edward Jenner is known for: Developed smallpox vaccine from cowpox
Chemotherapy is defined as: treatment with chemicals Synethetic drugs or antibiotics are used to treat infectious diseases
Paul Ehrlich is known for: Creating Salvarsan (the magic bullet) to treat syphillis or Treponema pallidum (had arsenic in it)
Alexander Fleming is known for: Discovery of pennicillin
Name Six Modern Developments in Microbiology A. Bacteriology B. Mycology C. Parasitology D. Immunology E. Virology F. Recombinant DNA Technology
Define Bacteriology: The study of bacteria
Define Mycology: The study of fungi.
Antibiotics are: chemicals produced by bacteria and fungi that inhibit or kill bacteria.
Define Parasitology: Study of Protozoa and Parasitic worms
Define Immunology: The study of immunity. Vaccines and interferons to prevent and cure viral diseases. Use immunology to identify some bacteria (looks at antigens and antibodies)
Define Virology: The study of viruses.
Paul Berg is known for: Inserted animal DNA into bacterial DNA and bacteria made an animal protein
Microbial Ecology is: The relationship of microbes to the environment. Microbes are decomposers of dead plants and animals. Bacteria recycle vital elements and nutrients Nitrogen, carbon, and oxygen cycle Sewage treatment
Rebecca Lancefield is known for: Classified Streptococci according to serotypes based on cell walls of bacteria.
Define Bioremediation: Bacteria degrade or detoxify pollutants such as oil and mercury.
Define Biological Insecticide: Microbes that are pathogenic to insects are alternatives to chemical pesticides to prevent insect damage to agricultural crops and disease transmission.
How do Modern Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering use microbes? Biotechnology, uses microbes to produce foods and chemicals. using Genetic engineering bacteria and fungi can produce a variety of proteins Genetically modified bacteria are used to protect crops from freezing and insects.
Define EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES (EID): New diseases and diseases increasing in incidence.
Name at least two EIDs: A. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathies B. Diarrhea (E. coli 0157:H7) C. Invasive Group A Streptococcus D. Cryptosporidium E. Avian Influenza A (H5N1) F. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
What is a Prion? Protein that causes infections
What is resistance? The ability of the body to ward off disease. -resistance factors include skin, stomach acid (ph 1 or 2) and antimicrobial chemicals (Interferon against viral and Complement system)
What is a Pathogen? Disease causing organism
What is a Susceptible Host? An organism in which the pathogen causes disease
List 3 practical applications of microbiology in human lives. 1.Using microbes as pesticides 2.Using microbes to clean up toxic substances in the environment (bioremediation) 3.Using microbes to produce food and chemicals
Describe the Bacteria Domain: Bacteria domain include may nonpathogenic prokaryotes as well as pathogens and photoautotrophic bacteria. All these organisms are unicellular prokaryotes with peptidoglycan cell walls. They reproduce by binary fission.
Describe the Archaea domain: Archaea domain includes prokaryotes that lack peptidoglycan cell walls; they live in extreme environments.
Decribe the Eukarya domain: Eukarya domain contains eukaryotes such as animals, plants, fungi, and protists. These organisms have a true nucleus
Discuss the differences between the algae and the fungi: Algae are photosynthetic eukaryotes that contain cellulose in their cell walls. Fungi are eukaryotes that are not photosynthetic and they contain chitin in their cell walls.
Discuss the differences between bacteria and fungi: Bacteria are unicellular prokaryotes that lack a nucleus and possess peptidoglycan cell walls. Fungi can be unicellular or multicellular eukaryotes with a true nucleus; they have chitin in their cell walls.
Discuss the differences between bacteria and viruses: Bacteria reproduce by binary fission while fungi reproduce by spores. Bacteria are unicellular prokaryotes while viruses are not cellular. Viruses are intracellular parasites.
Distinguish between normal microbiota and pathogens Normal microbiota or normal flora are the variety of microbes present in and on the human body without normally causing disease. Pathogens are disease-causing microorganisms.
Describe distinguishing characteristics of prokaryotes. Prokaryotes lack a true nucleus. They contain peptidoglycan in their cell walls. They reproduce by binary fission
Who was the first to see microrganisms Anton von Leeuwenhoek
Who disproved spontaneous generation and proved biogenesis. He also developed pasteurization and discovered the process of fermentation. Louis Pasteur
Who proved the Germ Theory of Disease. Robert Koch
Who introduced handwashing to prevent child birth fever? Ignaz Semmelweis
Who developed the smallpox vaccine? Edward Jenner
Who applied phenol disinfectant to surgical dressing? Joseph Lister
Who discovered penicillin, the first antibiotic? Alexander Fleming
Name the genus of the bacteria that Barry Marshall suggested as the cause of gastric ulcers in 1981. Helicobacter pylori
Invasive Group A Streptococcus causes: Flesh eating - extensive tissue damage
The leading cause of Diarrhea world wide is: E. Coli O157:H7
Define Aseptic: Techniques that keep areas free of unwanted microbes.
Created by: KMBERLE