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Potassium level 3.5-5
Sodium level 135-145 (Na and K generally go in opposite directions)
Chloride level 98-106 (Cl goes with Na)
Potassium Regulates metabolic activities, Important for nerve conduction. Important for muscle contraction (smooth, skeletal, cardiac)
Hypokalemia K is not stored in body. Must have 40-60 meq ingested in diet daily. EKG changes, fatigue, weakness, leg cramps, abd. distention, confusion. Caused by: vomiting, diarrhea, gastric suctioning, K wasting drugs (Lasix, Dig)
Foods high in K Bananas, oranges, baked potatoes, spinach, chocolate, coffee, dried fruits (apricots, raisins, dates), canteloupe.
K+ IV guidelines Diluted at no more than 1meq/10mL. Delivered via pump or controller. Give at rate of 5-10 meq/hr or 40 meq/2-3 hrs. Pt must have adequate renal function. Monitor cardiac and labs. NEVER GIVE IV PUSH!
Hyperkalemia Most common cause is renal dysfunction (also: K conserving diuretics and aged blood). EKG changes, muscle weakness, nausea, diarrhea, parethesia. Monitor labs and cardiac status, avoid foods high in K+, Kayexelate, or insulin/glucose.
Hyponatremia Less than 135. Muscle cramps, headache, weakness, fatigue, anorexia, N&V, drowsiness, confusion, coma, seizure. Caused by <3 failure, renal disease, excessive H2O intake or hypotonic IV's. Tx: oral sodium, IV fld. replacement, fld. restriction, diuretics
Foods high in Na Bacon, lunch meat, cheese, canned soups, snack foods, condiments.
Hypernatremia Greater than 145. Thirst, ^ temp, dry mouth, restlessness, weakness, altered level of consciousness, seizures. Caused by: H2O deprivation, excessive Na intake or H2O loss. Tx: depends on cause; low Na diet, monitor I&O, diuretics as indicated.
Too much SALT Skin- flushed. Aggitated (neurological). Low grade temp. Thirsty.
Calcium Needed for bone and teeth formation, blood clotting, nerve transmission, cardiac function.
Hypocalcemia Tetany (impending seizures), paresthesia, positive Chvostek's (facial spasm), positive Trousseas's, increased deep tendon reflexes, arrhythmias, bleeding tendencies.
Hypocalcemia causes and Tx Caused by post op thyroidectomy, radical neck Sx, Vit D deficiency, hypomagnesmia. Tx: oral calcium supplements, Vit D supplements, IV management: calcium and gluconate.
Foods high in calcium Cheese, milk, yogurt, ice cream, sardines, broccoli, spinach.
Hypercalcemia Muscle weakness, fatigue, decreased deep tendon reflexes, renal stones, EKG changes
Created by: fulk_90