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Intro to Rad Chp 8

Radiographic and Fluoroscopic Equipment

What is the primary role for a radiographer? The manipulation of expensive, high-technology x-ray equipment
Generic components of radiographic systems include: X-ray tube, collimator, x-ray table, control console, Tube stand
What part of the radiographic system produces the x-rays and radiation? X-ray tube
What is the x-ray tube made of? Glass or aluminum and encased inside a sturdy metal housing.
the two primary components of the x-ray tube Anode & Cathode
Positive electrode or terminal; where the x-rays are emitted Anode
negative-electrode or terminal; where the electrons are liberated cathode
How are x-rays created? The tube will convert electrical energy (electricity) to x-rays
- controls the quantity or number of x-rays mAs
-controls the strength or penetrating power of the x-rays kVp
x-ray beam-limiting device attached directly below the x-ray tube collimator
-controls the size and shape of the x-ray field coming out of the tube collimator
diaphragm or system of diaphragms made of an absorbing material collimator
designed to define the dimensions and direction of a beam of radiation device consisting of four rectilinear radiopaque blades that are adjustable to control xray field size and shape collimator
-act of adjusting the collimator to increase or decrease the field size is referred to as collimating or coning
increase collimation making a smaller field size
The __________ decreases or limits the field size and reduces unwanted scatter radiation from reaching the IR or cassette. Collimator
- automatic collimation systems Positive Beam Limitation ( PBL)
allows the x-ray unit to detect the size of the IR and automatically limit the x-ray field size to that size to minimize patient dose PBL - Positive beam limitation
6 types of x-ray tables: tilting, nontitling, free-floating, stationary top, adjustable, nonadjustable
- move in two directions -may be buttons for table movement or foot switches Free-Floating or moveable table tops
2 types of titling tables are: 90-90 (tilt from horizontal to vertical in either direction.) 90-30 (tilt vertical one way and 30 deg another)
-located below the table top and above the cassette tray bucky mechanism
-works as an oscillating grid device to decrease the amt of scatter radiation reaching the IR by moving or vibrating during the exposure bucky mechanism
using the bucky system will do what to contrast? increase it
another name for bucky tray cassette tray
-holds IR in place under the x-ray table & keeps it center under the table bucky tray
the device that gives the operator command of the x-ray machine control console
5 generic controls on the control console: main power, kVp, mA, time, rotor-exposure switch
what is technique selection? manipulation of mA, kVp, and time
What two components can be formed to create mAs? mA and time
Main power switch is usually located? on the wall above the control console
Machine power is usually located? on the control console
1kVp = _____ V 1000
kVp will range from ___ to ___ on most machines 30, 150
major kVp will change in steps of? 10
minor kVp will change in steps of? 2
1000 mA = ____ A 1
control consoles will range from ___ mA to ___ mA 10, 1200
mA is usually in increments of... 100 ( 100, 200, 300, etc)
most routine diagnostic radiography is done: btwn 100 and 400 mA
the device that begins the exposure Rotor-exposure switch
-contains two differnt exposure switches that are mechanically interlocked so one must be activated before the other roto-exposure switch
-causes the anode rotor to rotate and prepares the anode for the exposure factors/ takes 1-2 sec rotor switch
begins the exposure exposure switch
-automatically terminates the exposure -termination of the exposure must be indicated both audibly and visually timer
How do you avoid ending the exposure too soon? Get in the habit of not releasing the exposure switch until the audible tone or light message indicates
4 types of tube movements: longitudinal, transverse, vertical, tube angulation
-travel is moving the x-ray tube lengthwise to the technologist's left or right or toward the patients head or feet longitudinal
-travel is moving the tube at right angels across the table/towards or away from the technologist transverse
-travel is moving the tube up toward the ceiling or down toward the floor vertical
-pivoting the tube at a point where it is attached to its support tube angulation
two types of tube locks: electrical or Mechanical ( sometimes both)
The student must make sure the central ray (tube) is _____ to the center of the bucky tray when the tray is being used. centered
-the presentation of continuous or dynamic radiographic image fluoroscopy
What is added during an fluoroscopy exam? additl fluoroscopy x-ray tube, placed under the table; an image intensifier
-allows the radiologist to obtain static radiographs during dynamic fluoroscopic exams spot film device
Created by: erikasmith28