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LA Dental Dz

Vet Dentistry

What are 2 physical limiters of an examiners visibility for EQ dental exam? small oral opening long narrow oral cavity Limited vestibule cavity long thick tongue
At what level (tooth) does the hard palate transition into the soft palate? 2nd molar
Where does the soft palate lie relative to the epiglottis? ventral to it
What type of tissue lines the oral surface of the soft palate? salivary glands
What type of tissue is situated at the base of the tongue? lymphoid tissue aggregates: lingual tonsils
How many deciduous teeth do horses have? 28
How many permanent teeth do horses have? 40-44
Which tooth is the WOLF TOOTH? vestigial First premolar
What type of dentition do horses have? Radicular hypsodonts
How many cheek teeth are in each arcade? 6
At what age do the permanent central, intermediate, and corner incisors erupt? 2.5, 3.5, & 4.5 years
How many infundibuli do incisors have? What is another term for it? one, cup
At what age do the deciduous central, intermediate, and corner incisors erupt? 6d, 6w, 6m +/-
At what age do the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd deciduous premolars erupt? Birth to 2 weeks
At what age do the permanent 2nd, 3rd, and 4th premolars erupt? How long before they are 'in wear'? 2.5, 3, 4.5 years 6 months
At what age are the cups usually gone from the occlussal surfaces of the permanent premolars? 7, 8, & 9 yrs (for 2nd, 3rd, and 4th)
At what age do the permanent 1st, 2nd, and 3rd molars erupt? 1, 2, and 3.5-4 years
Regarding Galvayne's groove, at what age does it typically appear? extend half way down the crown? Extend 3/4 down the crown? Disappear? 10, 15, 18, 21 years
How many infundibula do upper cheek teeth have? two
How many infundibula do lower cheek teeth have? none
What degree of anisognathism exists in horses? Lower jaw is 30% narrower than upper jaw
Where is the TMJ relative to the occlussal line? dorsal to it = mechanical advantage to accomplish total occlusal contact of an entire arcade at one time
What is the typical jaw length set-up in horses? slightly mandibular brachygnathic (slightly shorter lower jaw)
Which teeth's roots are located in maxillary sinus structures? '08 - 11s
What direction do root apices 'move' as cheek teeth erupt? why? rostrally b/c the reserve crowns are curved ('08s might not be in the sinus in older horses)
What are the endodontic anatomy characteristics in a mandibular cheek tooth that has erupted in the past 2 years? apices are open/dilated. 5-6 pulp horns are connected by a common pulp area
What are the endodontic anatomy characteristics in a mandibular cheek tooth that has erupted in the past 3-5 years? roots and pulp chamber are more distinct, but still communicate
What are the endodontic anatomy characteristics in a mandibular cheek tooth that has erupted in the past 6-8 years? root canals are distinct and separate cavities
When using rhinoscopy, where might you see necrosis, granulation tissue, or purulent discharge? What is the most common cause? at the nasomaxillary aperture delayed mandibular development
What is the most common type of malocclusion in horses? parrot-mouth
What is another term for maxillary brachygnathism? In what horse breeds is it more commonly seen? monkey or sow mouth, maxillary micrognathism ponies, minis
What causes wry mouth? unequal arch development
How can brachygnathism be treated in young foals? Make them wear a rubber bite plane connected to a halter for 7-10 hours daily for the first 1-3 months (until cheek teeth erupt) (apparently they can still nurse)
After the bite-plane phase is completed, what additional orhtodontic intervention can be applied for parrot-mouth? inhibit maxillary growth: interdental wiring incorporating all maxillary incisors, connected to the second(and 3rd?) premolars
What is the most common cause for ectopic eruption? trauma to a developing tooth bud results in occlusal malalignment
Which tooth is most at risk for impaction? why? permanent 4th premolar b/c it is the last to erupt
What is heterotropic polyodontia? Like a dentigerous cyst: lined with stratisfied epithelium, located near temporal bone
What are common signs of dental abscess? facial swelling draining fistulas foul breath quidding nasal discharge head tilt abnormal behavior/poor performance
What are common causes of dental abscess anachorectic (esp. to '08s which are transiently hyperemic due to eruption pressures) patent infundibulla developing caries that extend into the pulp pulp exposure from fracture extensive periodontal dz
What solutions can be used to flush sinuses? dilute povidone-iodine, 0.2% chlorhex, LRS
What type of endodontic therapy can be performed on cheek teeth? retrograde
What obturating material is used for retrograde endo therapy in horse cheek teeth? Suer EBA IRM cement
Up to about what TOOTH age should all roots be endodontically treated, even if only one appears diseased? 7 years
What happens to eruption rate after endo tx? not clear at time of publishing
How many roots do mandibular cheek teeth have? Maxillary? 2, 3
What type of intubation may be helpful for General anesthetic deliver for dental procedures? intranasal
In considering the curvature of the cheek teeth, how does one estimate the location of root apices? typically located near the distal extent of the occlussal border
How long should the extraction site be protected with a pack? ~ 1 month
What sinusotomy approach can be used to access the maxillary 3rd molar? frontal sinus to reach the caudal maxillary sinus via the frontomaxillary opening
What tissue changes over root apices may be noted that indicate endo dz during exploratory sinusotomy? thickened periapical bone thickened sinus mucous membranes thin or missing periapical alveolar bone granulation tissue overlying apex
What complication can manifest if the bony alveolar plate around a tooth adjacent to one being retropulsed is damaged? oro-sinus fistula (requires extraction of additional teeth
What is a reportable disease that manifests in the oral mucosa? Vesicular stomatitis
What husbandry measures can be taken in ruminants to encourage dental health in the face of inability to provide much dental care? prevent excessive stress maintain adequate sanitation provide proper diet
How many maxillary incisors do ruminants have? Mandibular? none, 8 (6 incisors, 2 canines)
What type of teeth do ruminants have? radicular hypsodont
What cheek teeth and how many are present in ruminants same as horses: deciduous 3 teeth per arch, permanent 6 teeth per arch (3 PM, 3M)
How many deciduous teeth do cows have? Permanent? 20, 32
At what age are all deiciduous teeth erupted in bovine and porcine? by 1 month
Which ruminants rely on their lower incisors for prehension the most? small ruminants (cows use their tongue alot more)
What types of diseases commonly manifest in the oral cavity of ruminants? infectious
What infectious diseases manifest in the oral cavity of ruminants? Actinomyces bovis: lumpy jaw Actinobacillosis: woody tongue Vesicular stomatitis Foot and Mouth Disease Vesicular exanthema Rhinderpest Catarrhal fever Contagious pustular stomatitis Blue tongue
Which type of domestic animal has the most complete phenotypical dentition? pigs (28 decid. teeth, 44 permanents)
What type of molar and premolars do pigs have? bunodont, brachydont
Which pig teeth are sometimes clipped to prevent trauma to the sow during nursing? needle teeth: canines and 3rd incisors
What is the characteristic radiographic appearance of sinus feed impaction in horses? JVD Fall 2013 stippled, granular
Which teeth are most commonly affected by EQ peripheral caries? JVD Fall 2012 maxillary and mandibular molars
What type of diet may predispose to the development of EQ peripheral caries? JVD Fall 2012 high concentrate/low roughage diets (acidogenic) or dental abnormalities where restricted movement of food and saliva result
What are 1st degree, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th degree caries in EQ cheek teeth? JVD Fall 2012 1st: cementum only, 2nd: cementum + enamel, 3rd: cementum + enamel + dentin, 4th integrity of tooth is severely compromised (apical abscess or tooth fx)
What are the 2 patterns of EQ peripheral CT caries described? JVD Fall 2012 progressive enlargement of focal flask-like lesions leading to breakdown of adjacent cementum AND generalized flaking off of thin layers of under-run surface cementum
What are 2 proposed contributors to the formation of EQ peripheral CT caries? JVD Fall 2012 plaque (with bacteria) and stagnation of feed materials
What is "broken mouth" in sheep? JVD Fall 2012 early onset of perio dz primarily resulting in loss of incisor teeth
What is "osteodystrophia fibrosa"? What ruminant species has it been reported in? What causes it? JVD Fall 2012 condition where calcium is resorbed from bone and replaced with connective tissues, reported in goats, caused by hyperparathyroidism or deficiency of Ca, P, or Vit D
Is there an association between EQ peripheral cheek tooth caries and the presence of diastemata with feed impaction? Vet J 2010 no
Where do EQ peripheral cheek tooth caries most commonly occur? Vet J 2010 maxillary and mandibular molars (caudal 3 cheek teeth)
Where do diastemata most commonly occur between cheek teeth in horses? Vet J 2010 mandibular arcades
What are 2 categories of problems that may cause masticatory dysfunction in aging horses? JVD Winter 2009 1. dental dz; 2. inefficient masticatory forces (i.e. lower height of curve of spee)
What are the 5 most common indications for dental extractions in horses? JVD Winter 2013 tooth fx, perio dz, severe caries, mandibular fx w/tooth involvement, periapical abscess
What are the (8) components of the extra-oral dental exam in horses? JVD Winter 2013 facial symetry, fistulas, nasal discharge, malodorous breath, sinus percussion, mandibular palpation, regional lymph nodes, masseter muscles
What are (8) potential complications associated with cheek tooth extraction in the horse? JVD Winter 2013 ONF, OAF, retained roots, alveolar plug failure, sinusitis, palatine artery laceration, mandibular fx, sequestrum
What is the proposed etiology of hypercementosis of aging horse teeth? JVD fall 2014 (focal) occlusal stress on the PDL
Created by: lamarron