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Psychology 101

Chapter 1 Study Guide

What fields influenced Psychology? Biology, Philosophy
What are 3 phase of psychology? Introspection, Structuralism & Functionalism What was the study of psychology at this time? INTROSPECTION: the process of examining and measuring one's own thoughts and mental activities.STRUCTURALISM: The 1st school of thought analyzing basic elements or structures of conscious mental experiences FUNCTIONALISM: humans & animals adapting envirmt
Define Scientific Method orderly systematic identify a problem, design a study to investigate the problem, collect and analyze data, draw conclusions and communicate their findings.
Define Behavior Observable activity in a human or animal
Define Mental processes How humans and animals use mental processes in adapting to their enviorment
Define Hypothesis A testable prediction about the condition under which a particular behavior or mental process may occur
Define Theory A general principle or set of principles proposed to explain how a number of separate facts are related
Identify a CASE STUDY: In-depth study of one or a few individuals using observation, interview and/or psychological testing. CASE STUDY Pro's and Con's? PRO'S: Source of info. for rare or unusual conditions or events. Can provide basis for hypotheses to be tested later (rare disorders) CON'S: Not generalized. Doesn't establish cause of behavior, misinterpretation by researcher
Identify a SURVEY: Interviews or questionaires used to gather info. about attitudes, beliefs, experiences, or behaviors of groups of people PRO'S: Highly accurate info. Can track changes in attitude and behavior over time. CON'S: Can be COSTLY and time consuming. Responses may be INACCURATE
Identify NATURAL OBSERVATION: THe observation and recording of behavior in it's natural setting or in a laboratory Natural PRO'S: Natural setting Natural CON"S: No Control over conditions Lab PRO'S: Control & use precise equipment LAB CON'S: Maybe expensive & Not generalize to real world settings
Identify an EXPERIMENT: Random assignment of participants to groups. Manipulation of the independent variable(s) and measurement of the effect on the dependent variable PRO's: Enables cause and effect relationships CON's: In some cases experiment is unethical or impossible (labortory experiment: setting may inhibit natural behavior of participant)
Pyschology The scientific study of behavior and mental processes
Placebo The phenomenon in which the expectations of the participants in a study can influence their behavior
Psychoanalysis The theory and therapy based on the work of Sigmund Freud (the role of the unconscious motivation and early childhood experiences in determining behavior and thought
Identify a Dependent variable -vs- Independent variable INDEPENDENT: A factor or condition that is deliberately manipulated to determine whether it causes any change in another behavior or condition. DEPENDENT: The measurement of the result
Identify Correlations- Method use to establish the degree of relationship PRO's: Useful in making predictions when impossible for ethical reason. Studies can be done fairly quickly. CON's: A correlation can't be used to support the conclusion that either variable causes the other.
Identify test (experimental) group -vs- control group Experiment group- The group that is exposed to an independent variable. Control group-
Introspection Wilhelm Wundt the father of psychology
Structuralist Analyze basic element or structure of conscious mental experience Student of Wundt, Englishman Edward Bradford Titchener
Functionalist Humans and animals use mental processes to adapt to enviorment Charles Darwin
Humanistic Uniqueness of human beings and capacity for choice, growth and psychological health Abraham Maslow Carl Rogers
Behavorial Emphasizes the key role od the enviorment as a determinant of behavior John B Watson BF Skinner
Cognitive see humans as active participants in their enviorment studies mental process such as memory problem solving reasoning decision making preception language and other forms of cognitive Robins, Gosling & Craik
Physiological aka Biological looks for links between specific behaviors and equally specific biological processes that often explain individual differences GOLZ Kurup & Kurup
Sociocultural helps explain cross cultural differnces in behavior. The role of sociol and cultural influences on behavior Tweed & Lehman Lesley Lambright
Psychodynamic/Psychoanalytic The role of the unconscious motivation and early childhood experiences in determining behavior and thought Sigmund Freud
Evolutionary The role of inherited tendencies that have proven adaptive in humans. Theory of natural selection Charles Darwin
Gestalt Objects and patterns as whole units Wertheimer
Experiment a deliberate manipulation of a variable to see if corresponding changes in behavior result, allowing the determination of cause and effect relationship
Introspection INTROSPECTION: the process of examining and measuring one's own thoughts and mental activities.
Structuralism STRUCTURALISM: The 1st school of thought analyzing basic elements or structures of conscious mental experiences
Functionalism FUNCTIONALISM: humans & animals use mental process in adapting to their environment
Three major parts of a neuron? Soma- the cell body metabolic center of the neuron Axon- slender tail like extension Axon Dendrites- branched fibers called dendrites
Created by: RjsmomSusan