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A.P. Biology Ch. 25

The History of Life on Earth

QuestionAnswer
Macroevolution The pattern of evolution over large time scales, including photosynthesis, the emergence of terrestrial vertebrates, and the impact of mass extinction.
How was life first formed on Earth? The abiotic synthesis of small organic molecules; the joining of the particles to form macromolecules; the packaging of the macromolecules into protobionts; the origin of self-replicating molecules that eventually made inheritance possible.
What was the Oparin-Haldane hypothesis? Earth's early atmosphere was a reducing environment, in which organic compounds could have formed from simple molecules.
Protobiont A collection of abiotically produced molecules surrounded by a membrane-like structure, which exhibits the properties of life, including reproduction, metabolism, and homeostasis.
Ribozyme An RNA catalyst, which made complementary copies of short RNA pieces, when it was supplied with nucleotide building blocks.
Radiometric Dating A common technique for dating fossils, which is based on the decay of radioactive isotopes expressed through half-lives.
What is the order of mammalian evolution? Early tetrapods, synapsids, therapsids, early cynodonts, later cynodonts, and very late cynodonts.
Geologic Record The history of the Earth, which is divided into eons, eras, periods, and epochs.
What are the three eons from earliest to latest? Archaean, proterozoic, phanerozoic.
What are the three eras from earliest to latest? Paleozoic, Mesozoic, Cenozoic.
What are the twelve periods from earliest to latest? Ediacaran, Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, Permian, Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous, Paleogene, and Neogene.
What are the seven epochs from earliest to latest? Paleocene, Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene, and Holocene.
Endosymbiosis A model explaining how eukaryotes evolved from prokaryotes, which contests that the mitochondria and plastids were small prokaryotes living within larger cells, after being consumed with food.
Endosymbiont A cell that lives within another cell.
Host Cell The cell that hosts the endosymbiont.
Serial Endosymbiosis A model of eukaryotic evolution from prokaryotes, which suggests that the mitochondria evolved before plastids through a sequence of endosymbiotic events.
What is the model for serial endosymbiosis? An ancestral prokaryote infolds its plasma membrane to form an endomembrane system, engulfs an aerobic heterotrophic prokaryote that develops into a mitochondrion, which becomes an organelle along with the photosynthetic prokaryote that becomes a plastid.
What is some of the evidence supporting the endosymbiotic origin of mitochondria and plastids? The inner membranes have homologous enzymes and transport systems, they replicate similarly to prokaryotes
Cambrian Explosion The rapid appearance of many different phyla, including the first hard-bodied animals, of living animals during the Cambrian period.
Continental Drift The movement of the plates, which lie beneath the continents and cause the continents to move closer or farther from one another.
Pangaea The supercontinent from which all the continents separated and formed.
What are the effects of continental drift? It alters the habitats in which species live, changes the climate of the continent, promotes allopatric speciation, and explains puzzles about geographic distribution of extinct animals.
Mass Extinction When a disruptive, global, environmental change cases the rate of extinction to increase dramatically, causing several species to become extinct throughout the Earth.
What are the consequences of mass extinctions? It reduces an ecological community to a shadow of itself and permanently ends evolutionary lineages.
Adaptive Radiation A period of evolutionary change in which groups of organisms form many new species whose adaptations allow them to fill different ecological niches in their communities, and it often occurs on a large scale following a mass extinction.
Heterochrony An evolutionary change in the rate or timing of developmental events relative to reproductive or non-reproductive organs, which can determine certain aspects of the developing individual.
Paedomorphosis A condition in which reproductive-organ development accelerates compared to other organs, so the sexually mature stage of a species may retain features of the juvenile form of the ancestral species.
Homeotic Gene A master regulatory gene that determines the placement and spatial organization of body parts in a developing organism.
Exaptation A structure that evolves in one context, but becomes co-opted for another function.
Species Selection The model of long-term evolutionary trends proposed by Steven Stanley, which states species that endure the longest and generate the most new offspring species determine the direction of major evolutionary trends.
Created by: IvySmart