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Pathophysiology

Disorders: musculoskeletal, digestive, cardiovascular, neurolotical

TermMeaning
Esophageal atresia (congenital) a developmental factor which the upper & lower esophageal segments (LES) are separated; the upper section ends in a blind pouch; usually a connecting fistual from one segment to trachea
Congenital pyloric stenosis may be developmental in infants, or acquired later in life, usually b/c of fibrous scar tissue; the pyloric muscle is hypertrophied & can be palpated as a hard mass in the abd.
Chronic gastritis "inflammation in the stomach"; atrophy of the mucosa of stomach, w/loss of secretory glands; seen in indviduals w/PUD, alcohol abuse, and aging; Also Autoimmune disorders are associated; loss of parietal cells leads to achlorhydria & lack of Vit B-12
Oral candidiasis a common fungal infection that occurs in people who have taken broad spectrum atibiotics, cancer chemotherapy, or glucocorticoids & in those who have diabetes or are immunosuppressed; may appear as red, swollen and white curdlike material on mucosa
Alzheimer's disease common form of demetia' changes in progressive cortical atrophy, which leads to dilated ventricles * widening of sulci, particularily in parietal & frontal lobes; deficit of ACh occurs
Huntinton's disease an inherited disorder that does not manifest until midlife: maternal inheritance delays onset longer than inheritance from fathers. Progressive atrophy of the brain occurs. w/degeneration of neurons: depletion of GABA, ACh
Amyotrphic laterl sclerosis "Lou Gehrig's disease" amyotrophic=muscle wasying,; sclerosis=degenerative hardening of lateral corticospinal tracts; affects upper motor neurons in cerebral cortex & lower motor neurons in brainstem & spinal cord. s/s spastic paralysis, hyperreflexia,
Parkinsons' disease dysfuntion of extrapyramidal motor system occurs b/c or pregressive degenerative changes in basla nuclei; decreased # of neurons secrete dopamine leading to an imbalance b/t excitation & inhibition of basal nuclei: s/s tremors, facial/ocular
Peptic Ulcer Disease "PUD" occurs primarily proximal deodenum, also stomach antrum and lower esophagus; usually appears as cavity penetrating sub-mucosa. Ulcers can penetrate and perforate mucosal wall.
Ulcerative colitis inflammation commences in the rectum & progresses thru colon.; Inflammed Mucosa becomes edematous/friable and ulcerations develops. Vascular granulation tissue forms and easily bleeds; large coalesce areas become denuded.
Cirrhosis of the liver a condition demonstrating extensive diffuse fibrosis loss of lobular organization; regenerated hepatocyte nodules may be present; progressive disorder leading to liver failure; Pathophysiologic effects evolve loss of liver cell functions
Thrombus formation may form spontaneously usually b/c of stasis of blood or increased coagulabitlity of blood, or clot may from over an inflamed vein; Common in legs or pelvis. Piece of thrombus may break aways, an embolus to the heart of lungs (PE).
Hepatitis Infection from a group of viruses that target the hepatocytes: these include: hepatitis A (HAV ), HBV, HCV, HDV, & HEV. Liver cells are damaged by direct action of the virus or by cell-mediated immune responses to the virus. Liver necrosis results
Acute pancreatitis Inflammation of pancreas resulting from autodigestion of tissues; acute or chronic; autodigestion follow premature activiation of pancreatic proenzymes w/in the pancreas; (trypsin, proteases amylase & lipase); Massive Inflammation process
Esophageal varices caused from being connected w/gastric veins & cirrhosis of the liver increasing the pressure of blood that extends into the esophageal veins, creating large distended & distorted veins near the mucosal surface of the esophagus; Complication hemorrhage
Crohn's disease affects digestive tract, frequently small intestines. inflammation occurs (skip lesions) with affected segments clearly separated by normal tissue. Mucosal inflammation leads to ulcers that tend to coalesce to form fissures; Obstucts intrinsic factor
Multiple sclerosis progressive neuron demyelination (brain, spinal cord, & cranial nerves) affects all types of nerves throughout NS; MS is marged by remission/exacerbation until neural degeneration is irreversible
Duchenne's muscular dystrophy `X-linked recessive (only males); a metabolic defect, a deficit of dystrophin, a muscle cell membrane protein, leads to degeneration/necrosis of cell; skeletal muscle fiberas are replaced by fat/fibrous connective tissue; muscle funtions is lost
Ankylosing spondylitis vertebral joints first become inflamed; fibrosis, calcificatin or fusion of joints follow; the result is ankylosis or fixation of the joints. Inflammtion begins in the lower back (sacrial joint) progresses up the spince, causing a "poker back"
Rheumatoid arthritis autoimmune disorder causing chronic systemic inflammaroty disease; remissions/exacerbations lead to progressive joint damage. Rheumatoid factor (RF) is an antibody against I-Gh that is present in blood. Mobility is impaired
Gout common in men (> 40 yo) joint disease; results from deposits of uric acid (waste) & urate crystals in the joint developing acute inflammatory response. Gout affects a single joint; articular cartilage is damaged;
Cholelithiasis the formation of gallstones (solid masses/calculi bile formation); Larger stones obstruct bile flow causing pain; inflammation /infection in the biliary may provide exaccerbate stone formation.
Osteocytes mature bone cells (osteoblasts) tha lie b/t rings of matrix in spaces called lacunae.
Osteoblasts new bone forming cells
Osteoclasts reabsorbs & removes old & damaged bone cells
Stem cells a basic cell that may divide to give rise to a variety of specialized cells.
Hepatits A (infectious) affects kids & young adults through fecal-oral & sexual contact (contamiated water & homosexual partners). Incubation pd of 2-6 wks.
Hepatitis B (serum) insidious onsetl thr blood & sexual contact that worsens w/age: double-stranded DNA virus; has 3 antigens; incubation pd or 2 months
Hepatits C (non-A, non-B) insidious onset in adults thru blood & parenteral routes; most common from blood transfusions; single stranded RNA virus; incuation pd of 2 wks-6 mths (usually 9 wks)
Heptitis E acute fecal-oral route: may be sever; single stranded RNA virus; similar to type A; common in Africa & Asia w/high mortality rate in pregnat women; incubation pd is 2-9 wks.
Toxic Hepatits direct exposure; incubation days to months; can be acute or chronic; caused by hepatotoxins
Hepatitis Chronic non-infectious autoimmune; idiopathic; chronic; unknown incubation pd.
Baroreceptors pressure-sensitive nerve endings tha detect changes in blood pressure & alerts cardiac system. Located inwalls or aortic arch, atria of hearts, and carotid sinuses.
Cardia preload the stretch of ventricular muscle fiber @ the end of diastole; Cardiac output increases; reflected by ventricular pressure & volume @ the part of the cardiace cycle.
Glycogenosis the synthesis of glycogen from glucose
Achalasia abnormal condiditon characterized by inability of a muscle to relax. particularly the LES
Myelomeningocele developmental defect of CNS in which hernial sac containing a porton of spinal cord, its meninges, & cerebrospinal fluid protures thru a congenital cleft in the vertebral column; caused by failure of neural tube to close during embryonic development
Steatorrhea fatty, bulky stool resulting from malabsorption
Gastrin cells secretes gastrin when food enters the stomach & stimulates parietal & cheif cells
Mucous cells secretes gastrin in pyloric antrum; secretes mucous
Parietal cells secrestes hydrochloric acid (Hcl) and produces intrinsic factor; located in fundus
Cheif cells secrete pesinogen; located in fundus
Pancreatic exocrine secretions secrete digestive enzymes, electrolytes & water into tiny ducts & secrest hormones secretin & cholecystokinin.
Pancreatic endocrine secretions secrete glucagon & indulin
Lab values- Uric acid 2-6 mg/dl
Lab values - Bilirubin direst = max 0.3 mg/dl; indirect = 0.1 - 1.0 mg/dl
Lab values - AST 8 - 20 U/L (males); 81 - 40 U/L (females)
Lab values- ALT 98 - 251 U/L (males); 81 - 312 U/L in females
Peptic Ulcer Disese (Predisposing factors) Male; live in western countrym familial incidence of duodenal ulcers, stress & anxiety, trauma, aging & blood group O.
Chron;s disease (Predisposing factors) prevalent in adults 20-4-; runs in family; immune disorders; infections; allergies; obstructions
Cholelithiasis - Predisposing factors Female. obesity, high calories & high cholesterol diet, increased infections; allergies; obstructions
Acute gastritis - signs and symptoms anorexia, N/V, hematemesis, epigastic pain, cramps, fever, HA, diarrhea
Chronic gastritis - signs and symptioms milds epigastric discomfort, anorexia or inolerance for certain foods; increase risk for peptic ulcers & gastric carcinoma
Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) - signs and symptoms epigastric vurning or aching pain; heartburn, N/V, weight loss or gain
Cholecystitis - signs and symptoms severe waves of pain on RUQ or epigastric area sometimes radiating to back & right shoulder, N/V, jaundice, belching, & bloating, clay colored stoolds, chills, fever, light-headedness
Acute pancreatitis - signs and symptoms severe epigastric or abd. pain radiating to the back, signs of shcok-low BP, pallor & sweating, rapid, weak pulse-hemorrhage, low-grade fever; abd distention, & decreased bowel sounds
Appendicitis - signs and symptoms periumbilical pain, N/V, pain in RLQ of abdomen * tenderness, after rupture pain is relieved, then pain recurs as steady & sever, low-grade fever, leukocytosis (rigid board-like abd, tachycardia & hypotnesion=peritonitis)
Digestion - Mouth mastication of food; adds saliva for digestion
Digestion - Esophagus swallowing ood; carries bolus to stomach
Digestion - Stomach mixes food & dilutes chime; gastric secretions; digests protein, adds intrinsic factor & acids; holds food
Digestion - Small Intestine bile emulsifies fat; pancreatic secretions; intestinal secretions, which digest fat, protein & carbs; absorbs nutrients; most digetion t akes place.
Digestion - Colon absorbes water & electrolyes
Digestion - Rectum storage until defecation
Accessory Glands/organs - Liver carb metabolism; filter/detoxifies blood; removes amonia= urea, produces plasms protein, nonessential amino acids & VIt. A; stores nutrients; produces bile; convert glucose-glycogen (muscle fuel storage); stores fat & converts excess sugar to fat
Accessory Glands/organs - Gallbladder store & concentrate bile produced liver
Accessory Glands/Organs secretes 1000 mL of digestive enzymes daily; releases 2 hormones (secretin & cholecystokinin); secretes glucagon & insulin. Contain both endocrine and exocrine glands
Open( Compound) fracture involves skin breakage; bone frgments may be angles & protude thru skin; more damage to soft tissue, including blood vessels & nerves; higher risk for infection
Closed fracture skin is not broken
Complete fracture bone is broken to form tow or more seperate pieces
Incomplete fracture bone is only partially broken
Greenstick fracture common in softer bones in kids; shaft of bone is bent, teraing the cortical (outer layer) bone on one side but not extending all the way through.
Simple fracture single break in bone & bone ends maintain alignment & position
Comminuted fracture bone is crushed or collapsed into tiny pieces; common in certebraie
Impacted fracture one end of bone is forced into another bone
Pathololgic fracture results from weakness in bone structure d/t condition; spontaneous fracture w/very little sress to the bone.
Stress (fatigue) fractures results from repeated excessive stress; common n tivia, femur & 2nd or 3rd metatarslas.
Depressed fracture broken section of skull forced inward of brain
Transverse fracture a fraction across the bone
Linear fracture break along axis of bone
Oblique fracture one at the angle to the diaphysis of the bone
Spiral fracture break that angles around the bone; twisting injury
Colles' fracture a break in distal radius at wrist, sometimes ulnar is damaged.
Pott's fracture fracture of lower fibula d/t excessive stress on ankle; tibia may be damaged.
Created by: theresareed