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Com. Disorders

Understanding students with communication disorders

What is a speech disorder? A speech disorder refers to difficulty producing sounds as well as disorders of voice quality or fluency of speech.
Language Disorder A language disorder entails difficulty receiving , understanding, or formulating ideas and information.
Receptive language disorder A receptive language disorder is characterized by difficulty receiving or understanding information.
Expressive language disorder An expressive language disorder is characterized by difficulty formulating ideas and information.
Cleft palate or lip a condition in which a person has a split in the upper part of the oral cavity or the upper lip.
What is a dialect? A dialect is a language variation that a group of individuals uses and that reflects shared regional, social, or cultural/ethnic factors.
What is speech? Speech is the oral expression of language.
What is language? Language is a structured, shared rule-governed, symbolic system for communication. There are 5 components of language: phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics.
Phonology One of the five components of language. It is the use of sounds to make meaningful syllables and words.
Morphology One of the five components of language. It is the system that governs the structure of words.
Morpheme the smallest meaningful unit of speech.
Syntax One of the five components of language. It provides rules for putting together a series of words to form sentences.
Semantics One of the five components of language. It refers to the meaning of what is expressed.
Pragmatics One of the five components of language. It refers to the use of communication in contexts.
Social Interaction Theories theories that emphasize that communication skills are learned through social interactions.
Articulation disorders One of the most frequent communication disorders in preschool and school-age children. Articulation disorders occur when the child cannot correctly produce the various sounds and sound combinations of speech.
Articulation a speaker's production of individual or sequenced sounds.
Substitutions A type of articulation error that occurs when a child substitutes phonemes. for example /d/ for /th/ 'doze' for 'those'
Omissions An articulation error that occurs when a child leaves a phoneme out of a word.
Additions An articulation error that occurs when a student places a vowel between two consonants.
Distortions an articulation error. Distortions are modifications of the production of a phoneme in a word. (lisps)
Apraxia of speech (childhood apraxia of speech - CAS) a motor speech disorder that affects the way in which a student plans to produce speech. Apraxia can be acquired as the result of trauma or with other disorders.
Voice disorder affects the pitch, duration, intensity, resonance, or vocal quality.
Pitch pitch is determined by the rate of vibration in the vocal folds. It is affected by the tension and size of the vocal folds, the health of the larynx, and the location of the larynx.
Duration the length of time any speech sound requires.
Intensity loudness or softness of speech. It is determined by air pressure coming from the lungs through the vocal folds.
Resonance the perceived quality of someone's voice. It is determined by the way in which the tone coming from the vocal folds is modified by the spaces of the throat, mouth, and nose.
hypernasality a type of resonance trait in which air is allowed to pass through the nasal cavity on sounds other than /m/, /n/, and /ng/. This happens when the opening from the mouth to the nasal cavity is too large or inappropriately shaped.
hyponasality a type of resonance trait that happens because air cannot pass through the nose and comes through the mouth instead.
fluency rate and rhythm of speaking
fluency disorder characterized by interruptions in the flow of speaking, such as atypical rate or rhythm, as well as repetitions of sounds, syllables, words, and phrases.
specific language impairment not related to any physical or intellectual disability.
phonological disorder students with phonological disorders may be unable to discriminate differences in speech sounds or sound segments that signify differences in words.
morphological difficulties students with this have problems using the structure of words to get or give info.
syntactical errors errors that involve word order, such as ordering words in a manner that does not convey meaning to the listeners.
semantic disorder children who experience difficulty using words singly or together in sentences may have semantic disorders.
pragmatic disorders students who have difficulty with pragmatics include those with autism and traumatic brain injury.
organic disorders one type of speech and language disorder caused by an identifiable problem in the neuromuscular mechanism of the person.
functional disorder one type of speech and language disorder with no identifiable organic or neurological cause.
congenital disorder a disorder that occurs at or before birth.
acquired disorder a disorder that occurs well after birth.
articulation student's ability to produce speech sounds in single words, sentences, and conversation.
oral motor exam the examination of the appearance, strength, and range of motion of the lips, tongue, palate, teeth, and jaw.
bilingual uses two languages equally well
bidialectal uses two variations of a language
system for augmenting language (SAL) an instructional strategy that focuses on augmented input of language. Using SAL, communication partners augment their speech by activating the student's communication device in naturally occurring communication interactions.
Created by: atkins.barbie