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Vet Dentistry

What is the speed of light? 186,000 miles per second in a vacuum
What spectrum do x-ray wave energy belong to? Why? electromagnetic they have electric and magnetic fields associated with them
What material is typically used in an x-ray generator filament and target? tungsten
What is focal film distance? FFD distance from the focal spot on the tube's target to the film
What is Object-film distance? OFD distance from the object being x-rayed to the film
What are 3 main premises to decrease magnification/image distortion? 1: use as great an FFD as possible 2: use the minimal OFD as possible 3: place the film and object parallel to each other's long axis and perpendicular to the central useful primary beam
What are the more radiosensitive cells in the body? lymphatic young bone cells skin blood-forming tissues immature cells rapidly reproducing cells cells w/increased metabolism
What are 3 general radiation safety techniques? 1: avoid the primary beam 2: stand at least 6 feet away from the source to avoid contact with scatter radiation 3: schedule regular testing of the unit to prevent leakage radiation
What FFD should be used for optimal radiation safety? Short cone, because they require shorter exposure time
With what type of film can you reduce exposure time requirements further? E-speed
Do dental films use intensifying screens? no
What determines film speed? the size of the silver bromide (halide) crystals in the film emulsion larger crystal-->faster speed
What is the trade-off for faster speed film? coarser image, loss of fine detail
What are two manipulations of the position indicator device PID? vertical angulation horizontal angulation
What is the inverse square law? states that the intensity of radiation required varies inversely with the square of the distance from the source
according the inverse square law, if the FFD is doubled, and mAP and KVp remain constant, the exposure time must be _____ to maintain the same image quadrupled
what is the premise of definition evaluation? structures ling closest to the film will show better definition than those farther from the film
What is the SLOB rule AKA Clark's rule regarding tube shift technique? when the horizontal angulation is adjusted, lingual objects move toward the head and buccal objects move away from the head
What is the contrast resolution of standard film radiography? Computed tomography? JVD Summer 2013 5% vs. 1%
What is the result of a better contrast resolution of CT compared to standard film radiography? JVD Summer 2013 CT is more fine tuned, able to ID smaller resolution tissue differences
What are the 3 main enhancement patterns seen when using IV iodinated contrast medium for a CT scan? JVD Summer 2013 homogenous, peripheral, & heterogenous
When comparing MR & CT, what is MR better at? JVD Summer 2013 provides more accurated info regarding tumor size and invasion of adjacent structures
When comparing MR & CT, what is CT better at? JVD Summer 2013 provides best visualization of calcification and cortical bone destruction
What is a disadvantage of standard film radiography --compared to CT-- when used to evaluate oral tumor? JVD Summer 2013 extent of bony change is underestimated
What regional structure is CT particularly good at identifying when tumor involves it, which standard radiography tends to miss? JVD Summer 2013 orbit
What is the advantage of CT when evaluating oral tumors? JVD Summer 2013 CT shows better anatomical detail, structural resolution, & greater bone involvement sensitivity compared to standard radiographs
In Small dogs, what 2 teeth are most likely to show radiographic abnormalities? JAAHA 2013 maxillary PM4, mandibular M1
In small dogs, what is the most commonly detected radiographic abnormality? JAAHA 2013 bone loss of any type
In what age category of small dogs was it most common to see radiographic findings which were not noted on oral exam? JAAHA 2013 older dogs
What is the value of 18F-FDG PET/CT as a staging tool for feline oral SCC? Vet Comp Oncol 2013 soft tissue infiltrative tumors that were subtle and ill defined on CT were highly visible and more extensive on PET/CT. mets were seen as hypermetabolic on PET/CT
How many shades of gray can the human eye differentiate? How many shades of gray can CTdistinguish? JVD Fall 2013 Human:20-30. CT 32-60
CT is superior for imaging ___ tissues, while MR is superior for imaging ___ tissues when compared to plain film radiology. JVD Fall 2013 CT: hard/bony, MRI: soft
Does CT or MRI provide a diagnostic advantage over intraoral rads for detecting periapical abscess? JVD Fall 2013 no
What are 2 types of Cone Beam CT detector designs? JVD Spring 2012 IIT/CCD (image intensifyer tube, charged coupled device) & FPD (flat panel detector)
What scanning and reconstruction parameters influence imaged quality in CBCT? JVD Spring 2012 kVp, mA, scan field of view (FoV), patient positioning in the machine
Which type of CBCT detector design is less complicated, offers greater dynamic range, and has less distortion? JVD Spring 2012 FPD
What image artifacts are problematic when using CBCT? JVD Spring 2012 scatter, beam hardening, metal streaks, increased image noise level, increased inhomogeneity, image density variability, poor soft tissue visibility
Why was CBCT image quality for cats inferior? JVD Spring 2012 increased noise level
What is the typical radiographic finding in puppies with periostitis ossificans? JVD Fall 2010 double layered ventral mandibular cortex
Which modality was shown (by Bar-am et al) to be more useful for visualizing the mandibular body and occlusion--CT or RAD? 2008 Vet Surg Radiography
Which modality was show to be more useful for IDing anatomic skull structures and maxillofacial injuries in dogs/cats? 2008 Vet Surg CT
How much less radiation is used for digital dental radiography compared to traditional dental radiography? JVD spring 2014 50-80% less
EQ: what is the sensitivity and specificity of radiography to diagnose equine dental disorders? 52-69% and 70-95% (Weller et al 2001, Barakzai 2010)
What is the gold standard imaging modality for TMJ analysis (in humans)? MRI
Created by: lamarron