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Clinical Oral Pathol

Vet Dentistry

QuestionAnswer
What is MACRODONTIA? Crown is oversized but the root and pulp cavity are normal
What is TAURODONTIA? What dog breed is this seen in? Crown and pulp chamber are enlarged while the root is typically small Boxers
What is a PEG TOOTH? small, conical or cone shaped tooth with a single cusp
What is MICRODONTIA? the crown has a normal shape but is small
What is DENS IN DENTE? "tooth within a tooth" forms when the top of the tooth bud folds onto itself producing additional layers of enamel, cementum, dentin, or pulp inside the tooth as it develops
What is a FUSION TOOTH? 2 separate tooth buds joined at the crown by enamel and possibly dentin
What is CONCRESCENCE? fusion of the cementum and sometimes dentin of two teeth only along their roots
What is a GEMINATION tooth? The developing bud attempted to split but failed
What is TWINNING? occurs when there has been a complete cleavage of the splitting gemination bud, with the extra tooth being a mirror image of the original
What are SHELL TEETH? little or no root development but there is a crown
What is AMELOGENESIS IMPREFECTA? hereditary reduction in the amount of enamel matrix laid down during formation
What is the clinical appearance of ENAMEL HYPOCALCIFICATION? What is one viral cause? enamel pitting, discoloration Canine distemper virus
What effect do tetracycline compounds have on teeth? causes intrinsic dental staining
What terms describe missing teeth? hypodontia oligodontia
What term describes that all teeth are missing? anodontia
What is an operculum? A thick, fibrous gingival covering an impacted tooth
What part of the palate is affected by a primary cleft? defect between the incisal bone and maxilla: anterior lesion lateral to midline
What is another term for cleft lip? cheiloschisis
What breeds are most often affected by craniomandibular osteopathy? West Highland White Scottish Cairn terriers
What is the common underlying pathology of rubber jaw? renal dysplasia, secondary renal hyperparathyroidism Generalized osteodystrophy is more common in older animals
What is the definition of EROSION? external loss of tooth hard tissue due to a chemical process without active bacterial involvement
What is the general cause of external resorption? inflammatory response of surrounding alveolar bone and/or periodontal ligament
What is the general cause of internal resorption? Inflammation of the pulpal tissue
What is a common cause of external resorption? mechanical forces of mastication, esp. when exaggerated
What is ABFRACTION? Tooth flexure resulting from mastication that causes imperceptible cracks or chips at the CEJ
How do carious lesions develop? Acidic products from bacterial fermentation of carbohydrates decalcify inorganic material of enamel and dentin
What is a PYOGENIC GRANULOMA? granulomatous reaction to irritation at a specific site: red, friable proliferation of the gingival margin
Where are draining fistulae generally located when caused by periodontal abscess? Coronal to mucogingival margin
Where are draining fistulae generally located when caused by endodontic abscess? apical to mucogingival margin
List additional names for ULCEROMEMBRANOUS STOMATITIS Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis Vincent's stomatitis trench mouth
Where does ulceromembranous stomatitis classically appear first? ulceration of the interdental papillae or marginal gingiva
What is the suspected cause of ulceromembranous stomatitis ? opportunistic oral flora (spirochetes, fusiform bacteria) synergistically act in the presence of oral insult or poor oral hygiene
What is characteristic appearance of mycotic stomatitis? Ulcers coated with white plaque, primarily located on the tongue and at mucocutaneous margins
What systemic auto-immune diseases can cause mucosal ulceration in dogs? Pemphigus vulgaris Bullous pemphigoid Systemic lupus erythematosus
What is toxic epidermal necrolysis? acute, severe hypersensitivity rxn to drugs (penicillin, chloramphenicol, tetracyclines, chlorhexidine)
What sequellae of Diabetes Mellitus can enhance progression of periodontitis? Xerostomia, vasculitis
What sequellae of Renal Failure affect the oral cavity? uremic ulceration Elevated salivary ammonia levels
What is calcinosis circumscripta? white, chalky/gritty nodules in the tongue and buccal mucosa. Idiopathic. Seen in large breed dogs. Can progres to shallow ulcerations
Which organ/tissue in the mouth has the highest cellular turnover rate? Tongue
What vitamin deficiency often manifests in oral disease? Vit B: niacin, biotin, riboflavin Vit C
What mineral deficiency will result in rubber jaw? Calcium, deficiency -->secondary hyperparathyroidism
What nutrient excess may cause proliferative gingiva and affect the incisors in cats? Vit A
What infectious agents have a predilection for the tongue? Calicivirus Herpesvirus Rhinotracheitis virus Leptospira canicola
How can hypothyroidism affect the tongue? macroglossia
How does hypoparathyroidism affect the tongue? Ulceration and necrosis o f the tip
What nutritional deficiency will manifest in the lips? Niacin
How does MANDIBULAR NEUROPRAXIA present? Dropped-open mouth that can be closed passively with little effort (tx w/rest and conservative support)
What is the radiographic diagnostic threshold for detecting metastatic lesions? 0.5- 1 cm diameter
What is a radiographically diagnostic sign of a dentigerous cyst? distinct radiolucen area around the crown of an embedded tooth
What type of epulis can resemble gingival hyperplasia? Fibromatous epulis
What is the most common malignant oral tumor in dogs? Melanosarcoma
What is the most common malignant oral tumor in cats? Squamous Cell Carcinoma
What is the second most common malignant oral tumor in dogs? Squamous Cell Carcinoma
What are the 2 types of SCC? Which has the better prognosis? Tonsillar and Non-tonsillar (better px)
What is the third most common tumor in dogs? What is typical signalment at onset? Fibrosarcoma male dogs >7.5 years old
What is the most common tumor in the tongue? SCC
What 2 acid producing bacteria are the primary initiators of human caries? JVD Fall 2012 Streptococcus mutans, Lactoobacilli sp.
What is the definition of dental caries? JVD Fall 2012 decalcification of the mineralized dental components followed by disintegration and destruction of the orgnic fibrous and cellular components by acid producing bacteria
What are 2 subclassifications of dentigerous cysts? JVD Winter 2012 eruption or follicular cysts
From what tissues can an odontogenic cyst arise? JVD Winter 2012 tooth germ, enamel epithelium of a tooth crown, epithelial rests of Malassez, dental lamina remnants, or the basal layer of the oral epithelium
How does a dentigerous cyst develop? JVD Winter 2012 fluid accumulates in the area between the reduced enamel epithelium and the crown of the impacted or unerupted tooth
What are 4 different auto-immune diseases that can present with mucosal ulcerations in the mouth (i.e. ddx for CUPS)? Which one is NOT a vesiculobullous dz? JVD Spring 2011 mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP), bullous pemphigoid (BP), epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA), lupus erythematosis (systemic or discoid) LE is not a vesiculobullous dz
When there are mucosal ulcerations in the mouth, what is a clinical give-away that it is more likely caused by auto-immune dz rather than CUPS? JVD Spring 2011 other cutaneous or mucous membrane lesions generally indicated it is AI-dz
What is craniomandibular osteopathy? What breed/group is it most common in? JAAHA 2011 bilateral, irregular, ossoeproliferative, nonneoplastic disease of dogs that usually affects the bones of the cranium. Terrier group
How does azotemia result in oral ulcerations? JVD Fall 2011 excessive urea in saliva is metabolized by bacteria into ammonia which is irritating to oral mucosa, causing vasculitis, leading to ulceration necrosis and or sloughing of mucosa
What 2 viruses can cause lingual ulcerations in cats? JVD Fall 2011 feline calicivirus (most common) and FHV-1 (rhinotracheitis)
What is the characteristic radiographic finding in puppies with mandibular periostitis ossificans? JVD Fall 2010 two-layered ventral mandibular cortex
What is hyperostosis? Where can it occur? JVD Fall 2010 excessive periosteal bone deposition: any bone formed intrramembraneously (i.e. circumferentially around long bones, mandible, cranial vault)
Altho periostitis ossificans (PO) shares some similarities with craniomandibular osteopathy (CMO), what features are distinct for CMO? JVD Fall 2010 signs of CMO: fever, painful bilat. swelling, hyperostosis of mandibles, bullae, bones of cranium (Westies, Scotties, Cairn Terriers...Akita)
What is pericoronitis? JVD Fall 2010 inflammation of the gingiva in relation to the crown of an incompletely erupted tooth...it is exacerbated by trauma, occlusion, and FB which may result in a suppurative lesion, swelling, and lymphadenitis
What is the AVDC definition of enamel hypoplasia? inadequate deposition of enamel matrix
What is the genetic basis for amelogenesis imperfecta in humans? JVD Winter 2010 autosomal-dominant trait (enamel hypocalcification and hypoplasia)
What is the difference between enamel hypocalcification and enamel hypoplasia? JVD Winter 2010 hypocalcification (hereditary, defective maturation of ameloblasts) = undercalcified teeth are soft/chalky hypoplasia= thin enamel that is hard
What is a mucocele? JVD Winter 2010 an accumulation of saliva in the SQ tissue and consequent tissue rxn to saliva. it has a nonepithelial, nonsecretory lining sonsisting primarily of fibroblasts and capillaries
Which salivary gland (and which portion of it) is most commonly associated with mucoceles? JVD Winter 2010 sublingual salivary gland (rostral portion)
Where do salivary mucocele's usually form? What are 2 other common locations? JVD Winter 2010 intermandibular area (cervical mucocele) sublingual, pharyngeal
What is the tx recommendation for salivary mucoceles? JVD Winter 2010 surgical removal of the salivary gland/duct complex which is the origin of the mucocele (usually mandibular and sublingual glands are both removed b/c they are so intimately oriented) and passive drainage of the mucocele.
Is it recommended to attempt to dissect and remove a mucocele? Why? JVD Winter 2010 No, because they extend through various local tissue planes and will resolve just by removing the source gland/duct and draining them
What cat breed appears to be at higher risk for feline orofacial pain syndrome? 2010 J Feline Med Surg Burmese
What factors/events have been associated as triggers for feline orofacial pain syndrome? 2010 J Feline Med Surg toot eruption, stressful events, other dental dz
What is the clinical characteristic of feline orofacial pain syndrome? 2010 J Feline Med Surg episodic, typically unilateral, discomfort with pain-free intervals. The discomfort is triggered, in many cases, by mouth movements
What is a dentigerous cyst? JVD Summer 2009 a cyst that encloses part or the entire crown of an impacted or late-erupting tooth
What is a characteristic radiograhic finding in cases of dentigerous cyst? JVD Summer 2009 an unerupted tooth embedded in an osseous cyst wall
What is the histologic character of the lining of a dentigerous cyst? JVD Summer 2009 non-keratinized stratified flattened epithelium which is immunoreactive for amelogenin and ssDNA
What is the pathological hallmark of acitnomycosis? Are there other disease where this finding may exist? JVD Summer 2009 demonstration of sulphur granules from infected tissue. Yes, (other diseases that may include this finding are nocardiosis, chromomycosis, eumycetoma, botryomycosis)
What are proposed causes of open mouth jaw locking due to ventrolateral displacement of the coronoid mandibular process? JVD winter 2009 TMJ dysplasia, excessive mandibular symphyseal laxity, skull conformation, degenerative changes of TMJ soft tissues, spasticity of pterygoid muscles
What cat breeds are 'over' represented in literature about open mouth jaw locking? JVD Winter 2009 siamese and persian
What are 2 most common surgical techniques used to treat open mouth jaw locking? JVD winter 2009 partial coronoidectomy, partial zygomectomy
What is Wegener's Granulomatosis? JVD winter 2006 autoimmune (micro)vasculitis manifested in gingival tissue in a dog (but which often affects the repiratory and urinary tracts in humans)
What is a classic clinical appearance of Wegener's granulomatosis in a canine with affected oral mucosa? JVD winter 2006 Strawberry gingivitis
What is a "pink tooth of mummery"? 2002 Vet clin small anim a tooth that has internal resoprtion within the crown, giving it a pinkish color
What species besides domestic cats have been shown to develop TR? 2002 summer JVD wild cats, dogs, people, pigs, rats, mice, marmosets
What is the etiology of fibrous dysplasia of bone? is it malignant? JVD summer 2002 development dz, benign
What are 3 benign tumor lesions found on intramembranous bone? JVD summer 2002 fibrous dysplasia, osteoma, ossifying fibroma
What is the difference between condensing osteitis and idiopathic osteosclerosis (IO)? JVD spring 2014 radiogrpahically = but osteitis is dx'd if rad changes are associated with an endodontically compromised tooth (and/or clinical signs are present). If teeth associated w/bone lesion are normal, it is IO
Where are pyogenic granulomas consistently located in cats? JVD summer 2009 buccal mucosal margin of mandibular M1
What is the most common underlying etiology of pyogenic granulomas in cats? JVD summer 2009 traumatic occlusion w/the cusp of maxillary PM4s
What tx is recommended for pyogenic granulomas in cats? JVD summer 2014 excision of the mass and either odontoplasty or extraction of the ipsilateral max. PM4 +/- extraction of mand M1
Is bacteria the cause of pyogenic granuloma? JVD summer 2014 no, the cause is inflammatory
What are 6 possible causes of open mouth jaw locking in cats? JVD fall 2014 TMJ luxation, TMJ fx, caudal mandibular fx, impingement of the coronoid process of the mandible on the zygomatic arch, mechanical obstruction (teeth), neuropathy
Created by: lamarron