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Oral anatomy, physio

Vet Dentistry

What are the 3 basic types of tooth development? Monophyodont Polyphyodont Diphyodont
what is monophyodont? which animals have this type of dentition? Only one set of teeth erupts and remain in fxn throughout life Dolphins, rodents
What is polyphyodont? which animals have this type of dentition? Many sets of teeth are continually replaced sharks, crocodiles
What is diphyodont? which animals have this type of dentition? Two sets of teeth erupt: primary/deciduous and secondary/permanent domestic animals and humans
What are the 3 common types of vertebrate tooth anchorage? Thecodont Acrodont Pleurodont
What is GOMPHOSIS? a type of fibrous joint in which a conical object is inserted into a socket and held in place Seen in Thecodonts
How are acrodont teeth attached? Ankylosed directly into bone, no true root structure or socket
How are pleurodont teeth situated? grow from pockets inside the jaw (lizards, snakes)
What are the basic crown types? Brachyodont (shorter crown:root ratio) Hypsodont (continually erupting reserve crown)
What are 2 types of hypsodont teeth? Radicular: true roots eventually close their apices and cease growth Aradicular: absence of true roots, crown is continually formed to erupt throughout life
What types of cusps do secodont teeth have? Those with cusps arranged to provide cutting/shearing action: carnassial teeth in carnivores
What types of cusps do bunodont teeth have? Low, rounded cusps arranged on a flat occlusal surface for grinding: molars in carnivores and primates
What types of cusps do lophodont teeth have? cheek teeth cusps connect to form ridges: rhino, elephant
What type of cusps do selenodont teeth have? cheek teeth cusps connect to form a crescentic outline w/ a quarter moon ridge pattern
What type of cusps do bunolophodont teeth have? cheek teeth have both rounded cusps and transverse ridges on occlusal surface
What type of cusps do bunoselenodont teeth have? Cheek teeth have rounded cusps and crescentic ridges on the occlusal surface of the crown
What are 2 types of Jaw Occlusal Overlay? Isognathous Anisognathous
What type of teeth do dogs and cats have? diphyodont development of heterodont type teeth in anisognathic jaws anchored as tehcodonts, with brachyodont crowns of secodont premolars and bunodont molars
What structure separates the stomodeum and foregut early in embryonic development? buccopharyngeal membrane
What are the anatomic boundaries of the oropharynx? Tonsils laterally, base of tongue ventrally this is the level of the buccopharyngeal membrane during fetal development
When does initial development of dental structures occur? During embryonic formation: ~ 25th day the embryonic oral epithelium begins to thicken
What forms the upper and lower jaws? Thickening oral epithelium: dental lamina-->U-shaped structures of the jaws
Where does the enamel organ arise? from a series of invaginations of the dental lamina
Which parts of the oral cavity derive from embryonic ectoderm? oral epithelium, dental lamina, enamel organ
Which parts of the oral cavity derive from embryonic mesoderm? dental papilla and sac
What are the developmental stages of the enamell organ? Bud, cap, bell
What are the 4 components of the enamel organ? IEE: inner enamel epithelium OEE: outer enamel epithelium stellate reticulum stratum intermedium
What do the mesodermal/mesenchymal cells adjacent to the IEE become? Dental papilla-->dentinal and pulpal tissues
What structures does the dental sac give rise to? cementum, PDL, some alveolar bone
What is the function of the OEE of the enamel organ? protective layer for the entire organ
What is the function of the Stellate reticulum of the enamel organ? Works as a cushion for protection of the IEE and allows vascular fluid to percolate between cells and reach the stratum intermedium
What is the function of the stratum intermedium for the enamel organ? converts the vascular fluids to usable nourishment flr the IEE.
What is the function of the IEE of the enamel organ? responsible for actual enamel formation
What are the lingual extensions from dental lamina buds which form the primary dentition? successional lamina. they go through the bud, cap, and bell stages to eventually for succcessional permanent dentition
Which structure forms the primary palate? (premaxilla, incisal bone) Medial nasal process
What structures form the secondary palate? left and right maxillary processes
Where do PRE-AMELOBLASTS come from? IEE cells evolve into taller cells during the bell stage to become preameloblasts
Where do ODONTOBLASTS come from? peripheral cells of the dental papilla bordering the preameloblasts transform into cuboidal cells and beging to migrate toward the center of the dental papilla, away from the preameloblasts
Where do AMELOBLASTS come from? preameloblasts undergo a polarity shift such that the nuclei move from the center of the cells toward the stratum intermedium
What do AMELOBLASTS do? Secrete enamel matrix: mucopolysaccharide ground substance and organic fiber
What do ODONTOBLASTS do? leave behind a secreted dentinal matrix of mucopolysaccharide ground substance and collagen fibers as they migrate toward the center of the papilla
What is the inorganic composition of enamel? 96% hydroxyapetite crystals, magnesium, other ions
What is the organic composition of enamel? 4% water, collagen
During what developmental stage is the enamel matrix laid down? Late bell stage
What happens during the minerailzation stage of calcification of the enamel rods? CRYSTAL IS LAID DOWN WITHIN THE RODS
What happens during the maturation stage of calcification? crystals grow in size, becoming tightly packed together within the enamel rods
Once the ameloblasts migrate to reach the OEE, what happens? stratum intermedium and stellate reticulum are lost ameloblasts lay down Nasmyth's membrane
What is Nasmyth's membrane? Primary enamel cuticle: a protective layer on top of enamel
What is the origin of the reduced enamel epithelium? Fusion of the ameloblasts with the OEE after Nasmyth's membrane is formed
What is the function of the reduced enamel epithelium? produces an adhesive-like secretion: secondary enamel cuticle AKA epithelial attachment
What is the definition of HYPOPLASTIC ENAMEL? Normal density of calcification, but enamel is thinner than normal
What is the definition of ENAMEL HYPOCALCIFICATION? poorly mineralized areas of the enamel show as white, yellow, or brown spots
What is the mineral/inorganic composition of dentin? 70% hydroxyapatite crystals
What is the organic composition of dentin? 30% collagen fibers, mucopolysaccharide substance, water
What is another name for odontoblastic processes within dentinal tubules? Tomes fibers
What is the definition of PRIMARY DENTIN? Forms before eruption of the tooth
What is the definition of SECONDARY DENTIN? Forms after eruption of the tooth
What is TERTIARY DENTIN? What stimulates its formation? REPARATIVE dentin: trauma to dontoblasts (thermal, mechanical, occlusal, or chemical)
What is the average density of odontoblastic processes in primary and secondary dentin? 30,000 - 40,000 odontoblastic processes per square mm
Where is interglobular dentin located? next to DEJ: dentino-enamel jxn hypocalcified during formation
What are Granular layers of TOMES DENTIN? Same as interglobulra, except located next to CDJ: cemento-dentinal jxn
What is DEAD TRACT DENTIN? Tubules are empty, don't contain odontoblastic processes
What tissues constitute the PULP? blood vessels lymph vessels nerves fibroblasts collagen fibers undifferentiated reserve mesenchymal cells other connective tissue cells odontoblasts
Which cell layers of the enamel organ form hertwig's epithelial root sheath? OEE and IEE at the cervical loop junction
What is the origin of EPITHELIAL RESTS OF MALASSEZ? Hertwig's Epithelial root sheath cells that move away from dentin but fail to dissolve become entrapped in the PDL
What is the EPITHELIAL DIAPHRAGM? The portion of the root sheath that angles back toward the center of the forming root, determines the number of roots a tooth develops
What are ENAMEL PEARLS? Enamel secreted onto the root by epithelial root sheath cells that converted into ameloblasts after they failed to dissolve and remained in contact with dentin
What is the inorganic and organic composition of CEMENTUM? 45-50% INorganic 50-55% organic
What is acellular cementum? Where is it located? Cementum which does not contain cells entrapped within the calcified matrix. Cervial 1/2 to 2/3 of the root
What is the cellular cementum? Where is it located? cementum that contains cementocytes trapped within the calcified matrix Apical 1/3 of the root
What are SHARPEY'S FIBERS? PDL ligament fibers embedded in cementum and/or alveolar bone
What are the 3 bone layers of the alveolus? cribiform plate/lamina dura cortical plate cancellous/trabecular bone
What is bundle bone additional bone laid down on the cribriform plate as a result of remodeling due to occlusal stresses
What type of nerve fibers does the pulp contain? pain only
What types of nerve fibers does the PDL contain? pain, pressure, heat, and cold
How many deciduous teeth do dogs have? 28
How many permanent teeth do dogs have? 42
How many deciduous teeth do cats have? 26
How many permanent teeth do cats have? 30
What is a line angle? How many exist for each tooth? dividing lines formed between 2 surface areas of a tooth. 8 per tooth
What is a point angle? How many exist for each tooth? junctures of three line angles. 4 coronal point angles for each tooth
What is a contact area? What are 2 different kinds? an area where adjacent or opposing teeth make contact. occlusal or proximal
What is the name of the cavern within the tooth where the pulp resides? Pulp cavity
What is the portion of the pulp cavity within the crown called? Pulp chamber
What is the portion of the pulp cavity within the root called? Root canal
What is the largest, most powerful muscle of masticatioin? temporalis
What are the muscles of mastication? temporalis masseter lateral and medial pterygoid
What nerve innervates the muscles that close the jaws? Trigeminal, CN V
What muscle opens the jaw? Digastricus
What nerve innervates the digastric muscle? rostral belly: trigeminal n. caudal belly: facial n.
What is the intrinsic muscle of the tongue? m. lingualis proprius
What nerve innervates the muscles of the tongue? Hypoglossal nerve (CN XII)
What are the extrnisic muscles of the tongue? Styloglossus hypoglossus genioglossus
What other nerves innervate the tongue for touch, pain, heat, taste, and gland fxn? lingual (CN V) chorda tympani (CN VII) glossopharyngeal (CN IX)
What are the 3 kinds of gustatory papillae of the tongue which contain taste buds? fungiform vallage foliate
What are the mechanical papillae of the tongue that do not contain taste buds filiform conical marginal
What is the primary blood supply to the tongue lingual arteries
What inorganic and organic substances compose saliva? electrolytes (calcium, bicarbonate, chloride, sodium , potassium) proteins (immunoglobulins) hormones minerals vitamins enzymes (amylase--only in some species)
What are the antimicrobial qualities of saliva? pH (generally alkaline) mucous lysosomes immunoglobulins fluoride
Which species has the most alkaline saliva? cows
Which domestic species have a zygomatic salivary gland dogs, cats
Which species has molar salivary glands? cats
What are RETE PEGS? Epithelial extentions that insert into (interdigitate with) the underlying connective tissue
Where are Rete Pegs most developed and densly arranged? In keratinized and parakaratinized masticatory mucosa
What are the connective tissue extensions that interdigitate with rete pegs called? dermal papilla
What domestic animal has the most complete dentition? JVD Spring 2013 Pig (44 teeth)
Where does the NL duct empty into the nasal cavity? JVD Summer 2013 lateral wall of the vestibule
Where is the lacrimal foramen located in cats? JVD Summer 2013 just ventral to the infraorbital oramen. The (at the level of the maxillary 3rd premolar teeth)
In domestic cats, whre is the NL duct always located in relation to the maxillary canine tooth? dorsal or dorsomedial to the maxillary canine tooth root separated only by the thin alveolar bone
What are 4 possible etiologies of acquired NL duct obstruction? JVD Summer 2013 infections, neoplastic, traumatic, mechanical obstrxn
In the dog mouth, where are periodontal tissues generally thickest? JVD Fall 2013 canines, maxillary PM4, mandibular M1
in the dog, where are periodontal tissues generally thinnest? JVD Fall 2013 incisor and first premolars
What constituents of saliva are present in significantly higher proportions than they are in plasma? JVD Winter 2010 potassium and bicarbonate
What ions are present in significantly lower concentrations in saliva compared to plasma? JVD Winter 2010 sodium and chloride
How can excessive salivation affect total body potassium levels? JVD Winter 2010 can deplete total body potassium levels
How does aldosterone affect ion concentrations in saliva? JVD Winter 2010 increases potassium and decreases sodium an chloride even further
Which portion of the nervous system regulates salivation? JVD Winter 2010 autonomic nervous system (parasympathetic and sympathetic)
What is the average pH of saliva in humans? dog/cat? ruminants? JVD Winter 2010 6.6 (human), 7.5 (dog/cat), 8.2 (ruminant)
What type of saliva do parotid glands produce? JVD Winter 2010 serous type
What type of saliva do subligual glands predominantly produce? JVD Winter 2010 mucous
What type of acini do the mandibular salivary glands contain? JVD Winter 2010 both serous and mucous = "mixed"
Which domestic animals have zygomatic salivary glands? JVD Winter 2010 dogs and cats only
What salivary glands do only cats have? JVD Winter 2010 molar glands (no other animal has them)
Why is saliva so important in ruminants (produced in large volumes)? JVD Winter 2010 buffers acids from forestomach (high bicarb content), provides nutrients for microbes in the rumen (nitrogen, phosphorus, sodium), provides liquid environment for fermentation in rumen, antifoaming agent in the rumen
What digestive enzyme is present in the saliva of omnivores (human, pig, rat)? JVD Winter 2010 amylase (converts starch to maltose)
Created by: lamarron