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Equipment/Instrument

Vet Dentistry

QuestionAnswer
What are the three basic parts of periodontal hand instruments? Handle (shaft), Shank, Working end
What are 3 types of working ends of perio hand instruments? Blade, point, nib
On scalers/currettes, what is the surface between the 2 blades called? face
On scalers/currettes, what is the outside curve where the shank ends and the working end begins? Heel
What is the benefit of Solid handle perio instruments? Firmer grip
What is the benefit of hollow handle perio instruments? conduct vibrations better, enhanced tactile sensitivity
Which type of instrument grasp is commonly used for mirrors, probes, explorers, curettes, scalers? modified pen grasp
Which perio probe is color-coded with alternating bands at 3, 6,9 & 12 mm? Marquis probe
Which perio probe is indented with lines at 1, 2,3, 5, 7, 8,9 &10 mm? Williams probe
Which perio probe is marked at 3, 6, & 8 mm? Michigan-O probe
Which probes doesn't have calibration markings and is curved? what is it used for? Nabors No.2 probe, examine furcations
Which explorer is designed for detecting subging. calculus and restorative margins? No. 17 explorer
Which explorer is designed for detection of caries or lesions above the gingival margin? No. 23 explorer, classic Shepherd's hook
What are the 2 basic designs of scalers? Curved sickle scaler and the straight sickle scaler (aka Jacquette scaler)
What is the most commonly used area-specific currette? Graceys currette
How are Universal currettes distinct from Graceys curettes in respect to parallelism Universal currettes: handle parallelism Graceys curettes: shart parallelism
What is a natural sharpening stone? What texture does it have? Arkansas oilstone, fine-textured
What are examples of artificial stones? What texture do they have? Aloxite, Ruby, and diamond: coarse texture India stone: fine or medium texture Ceramic stone: relatively fine texture
What are 2 basic clinical criteria for examining blade sharpness of perio hand instruments? Shave test (using acrylic test stick) Visual test (sharp blade does NOT reflect light)
What are benefits of working with materials that cure with a light gun ample time to work with material before it spontaneously cures. Rapid curing time with reduced polymerization shrinkage
What range are most modern light curing guns? Visible or near-red range of 400-450 nm higher energy output-->better penetration/deeper cure
What is the function of an elevator? Used as levers or wedges to fatigue the periodontal ligament and its connection to the tooth
How are dental luxators different than elevators? Luxators have a wider more delicate blade and are used in the PDL space to sever the PDL attachment
Which type of radiosurgical current is the least traumatic? What level of hemostatis does it provide? Fully filtered Current: little coagulation effect
What is the ideal use of Fully filtered current radiosx? Sx close to cementum or bone
What type of radiosx current is used to coagulate tisues for hemostasis? Partially rectified current
In addition to hemostasis, what is partially rectified current good for? Electrophoresis to stimulated solutions to penetrate hard tisues: i.e. bleach endo treated teeth, desensitize dentin, cementum
What is the most destructive type of radiosx current? Fulgurating (sparking) current
What is fulgurating current used for? Hemostasis involving osseous sx sites, destruction of cyst remnants, destruction of fistulous tract linings
Fulgurating current: advantages? disadvantages? Advantages: speed, hemostasis, good healing, improved clear field Disadvantages: odor, shock hazards, restricted use around flammable products
How are power scalers classified by the ADA? Type A: ultrasonic (magnetostricitve, piezoelectric) Type B: mechanical (sonic or rotary) Type C: hydraulic
At what frequency doe Ultrasonic dental scalers generally function? >20 kHz ("beyond or above sound")
by what two basic mechanisms do US scalers work? Mechanical kick & cavitation
What are the 2 types of magnetostrictive US scaler units? Ferromagnetic stack & ferrite rod
What material is used in ferromagnetic stacks? In what pattern does the tip move? At what frequency do they operate on average? Nickel elliptoid, figure-8 pattern 25 kHz
What material is used in ferrite rods? In what pattern does the tip move? At what frequency do they operate on average? Titanium tip elliptical circular pattern 42 kHz
Which tip movement pattern produces fewer potentially unstruck or dead-zones? More elliptical
How does a piezoelectric scaler work? In what pattern does the tip move? At what frequency does it operate? Expansion/contraction of quartz crystals Curved linear tip movement 20-45 kHz
What is the speed of sound? 738 mph
What is an advantage of sonic/subsonic scalers? generate less heat (operate at <20 kHz
What is likely the most damaging scaling unit? Rotary: 300,000 rpm w/six sided soft-steel bur-->30 kHz. Requires sharp burs and a delicate touch
How do hydraulic scalers work? "sand-blast" using fine baking soda powder: can cause irritation to soft tissues
What is the minimum psi generally needed to drive handpieces powered by compressors? 30-40 psi, 3 cubic feet per minute at the the hand piece level
What are the criteria for ADA classified Type I hand pieces High speed: 100,000-800,000 rpm Class A >160,000 rpm Class B 100,000-160,000 rpm
What are the criteria for ADA classified type II hand piece? Midspeed: 20,000-100,000 rpm
What are the criteria for ADA classified type III handpiece? Low speed: <20,000 rpm
Contra-angles for hand pieces that are used at <10,000 rpm are generally best for what tasks? Restorative pin placement & polishing
Contra-angles for hand pieces that are used at 20,000 rpm are generally best for what tasks? Sectioning of of teeth
Contra-angles for hand pieces that are used at >30,000 rpm are generally best for what tasks? laboratory work
What are Contra angles with a 10:1 reduction angle most commonly used for> endodontics: lentulo spiral paste fillers, gates-glidden drills, peeso burs Restorative work w/drilling burs for pins
High speed handpieces generally operate at ____ rpm and are ideal for ____ >400,000 rpm: cut teeth and bone efficiently
What level of torque do high speed hand pieces generate? Low torque--> run at lower rpm under load of cutting (bur will stall under excess pressure)
What types of burs do high speed handpieces hold? friction grip
What is the preferred metal material for dental burs? carbide steel
what page in Wigg's text has tables that describe dental burs? p.23
How many blades (flutes) do cutting burs have? six
How many blades (flutes) do finishing burs have? 10+ (more flutes-->smoother finish)
What is the difference between crosscut fissure bures and plain-fissure burs? crosscut burs are more efficient at removing hard tissue
What is the difference between Gates Glidden drills and Peeso reamers? Peeso reamers have a larger torpedo head and can make their own path and do not necesarily follow a pre-existing hole
What is green stone abrasive point made of? What is it best used for? Silicon carbide: remove rough, bulky areas of restoration
What is white stone abrasive point made of? What is it best used for? Dense micrograined aluminum oxide: provides a smooth final surface
What is the major difference between steel burs and diamond points? cutting efficiency and heat generated: diamond is faster & more aggresive diamond has greater surface contact-->generates more heat
What are extra-course diamond burs best used for? removal of conective tissues or bone (i.e. crown lengthening procedure)
What are coarse grit diamond burs best used for bulk removal of tooth structure
What are medium grit diamond burs best used for? routine tooth preparations involving dentin and enamel
What are fine grit diamond burs best used for? finishing and margin preparation
What are 4 types of straight fissure burs and what numbers are they designated? 1. plain end-cutting 56, 57, 58 2. cross cut end-cutting 556, 557, 558 3. plain round end 1156, 1157, 1158 4. cross cut round end 1556, 1557, 1558
How long are standard FG burs? 19 mm
How long are surgical length FG burs? 25 mm
What is the diameter of the sphere on round bur No. 1/2? No. 1? No. 3? No. 4, 5, 6, 8? Round 1/2: 0.6 mm 1: 0.8 mm 2: 1 mm 3: 1.2 mm 4: 1.4 mm 5: 1.6 mm 6: 1.8 mm 8: 2.3 mm
Why does rinsing stainless steel endo files after use decrease risk for breaking in the canal? Scanning 2012 b/c reduce surface oxidation, reduce instrument weakening, by removing blood and other fluids
What do the numbers assigned to currettes indicate? Where should lower numbered instruments be used in the mouth? JVD Summer 2012 lower number indicates a smaller blade angle and appplication more rostral in the mouth. Higher numbers are to be used more caudally in the mouth
In what way are hoe scalers designed to be used? What is the standard series of hoe instruments? JVD Summer 2012 pull motion. McCall's series
In what way are chisels designed for use and where are they best suited for use? JVD Summer 2012 in a push motion in tight interproximal spaces
Name 3 types of periodontal knives. Visualize their appearance. JVD Summer 2012 Orban, Kirkland, Oschbein
What are 'whities'? JVD Fall 2010 rubber points impregnated with sintered aluminmu oxide used for finishing composite restorations and polishing metal crowns
What is the final step in polishing metal crowns during prophy? JVD Fall 2010 apply rouge (fine red powder of iron oxide) with a cloth wheel
Created by: lamarron