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Digestive system

Abdomen Anatomy

QuestionAnswer
what are the two parts of the digestive system *accessory glands *alimentary canal(mouth to anus)
what are the accessory glands of the digestive system *salivary glands *liver *gallbladder *pancreas
salivary glands any of the three glands near the oral cavity that secrete saliva
*largest solid organ of the body, located in the RUQ *produces bile liver
*blue/gray sac attached to the to the under side of hte liver *has a capacity of apprx. 50ml *holds bile gallbladder
*exocrine and endocrine organ *exocrine function includes the secretion of *enzymes that help digest food and neutralize acid in the stomach *pancreatic juice pacreas
what are the divisions of the alimentary canal *mouth *pahrynx *esophagus *stomach *small intestine *large intestine(terminates at anus)
*extends from the diaphragm to bony pelvis *consist of abdominal and pelvic cavities abdominopelvic cavity
what is contained in the abdominal cavity *stomach *small intestines *large intestines *liver *gallbladder *spleen *pancreas *kidneys
what is contained in the pelvic cavity *rectum *sigmoid *urinary bladder *reproductive organs
what are the nine regions of the abdominopelvic cavity *right and left hyperchondrium -epigastrium *right and left lateral -umbilical *right and left inguinal -hypogastrium
double layered membrane that surrounds organs of digestion peritoneum
parietal peritoneum lines abdominal wall
visceral peritoneum surrounds organs
serous filled cavity that surrounds organs abdominal cavity -contains 50ml of serous fluid parietal cavity
anchors organs and acts as conduit for vessels and nerves messentery
structures that are retroperitoneal -urinary system -most of reproductive system -inferior portion of esophagus
what are the two parts that make up the messentery -omentum *greater omentum *lesser omentum -mesocolon
attaches greater curverature of stomach to transverse colon greater omentum
attaches lesser curverature of stomach to liver lesser omentum
from transverse colon to posterior abdominal wall mesocolon
cavity within a hollow organ lumen
round muscle(opening of hollow organ) sphincter
wavelike movement of wall of hollow organ peristalsis
churning or mixing motion of stomach to break down food segmentation
narrowing of a lumen stenosis
absence of an opening atresia
what are the four layers of the digestive wall tract 1. serous 2. muscular 3. submucosal 4. mucosal
outermost layer of digestive tract, part of visceral peritoneum. also called adventitia layer serous layer
second layer of digestive tract, responsible for peristalsis. there are circular and longitudinal varieties muscular layer
third layer of digestive tract, contains vessels submucosal layer
innermost or 4th layer, epithelial layer (absorbion and secretion) mucosal layer
what layer of tissue is the esophagus missing and what is in place of it -serous layer -connective tissue
what are the six substances that are required to meet bodily requirements -carbs -fats -mineral -protein -vitamins -water
ingestion consumption
mastication chewing
deglutation swallowing
breaking down of food digestion
passage of nutrients into blood absorbtion
what are the divisions of the mouth -oral vestibule -oral cavity
between the teeth and the cheek oral vestibule
hollow space behind teeth(communicates with pharynx) oral cavity or mouth proper
what anatomy makes up the "mouth" -oral vestibule -oral cavity, or mouth proper -hard palate -soft palate -uvula -tonsil -tongue -sublingual space -frenulum of toungue
made up of maxilla and palantine hard palate
-folded epithelial tissue -partission between naso and oropharynx soft palate
small spindulous cone at back of soft palate uvula
mass of lymph tissue in the mucous membrane of the pharynx and base of the tongue tonsil
what is the strongest single muscle in the body tongue
space under the tongue sublingual space
what attaches the tongue frenulum
what are the accessories of mastication teeth
what are the three pairs of salivary glands -parotid -submandibular -sublingual
what enzyme is found in saliva amylase/ptyalin
the largest of the salivary glands, found in front of the ear running from the mandibular rami to the mastoid process parotid gland
what is the name to the duct of the parotid gland stenson
salivary gland that is found under the floor of the mouth, running from the 1st molar to the angle of the mandible submandibular
what is the name to the duct of the submandibular gland wharton
the smallest salviary gland, found in front of submandibular gland sublingual gland
what is the name of the duct of the sublingual gland sublingual duct
what do you call a radiographic exam of the salivary glands and their ducts(using contrast) sailography
what are the modalities of choice for sailography -CT -MRI
what pathologies could be demonstrated using sailography -inflammatory lesions -tumors -fistulas -diverticula -strictures -calculi
how many salivary gland can be examined at once using sailography one
what are the steps of the sailography exam -prelim images -pt is given lemons to dilate ducts -contrast is given -fluoro and radiographs are performed -lemons are given again to evacuate contras -radiographs are taken again
what are the divisions of the pharynx -nasopharynx -orapharynx -laryngopharynx
what is the opening in the diaphragm that the esophagus passes through called esophageal hiatus
how long is the esophagus 25 cm
what are the layer of the esophagus -muscular -submucosal -mucosal
what is the location of the esophagus -posterior to the trachea -originates at C6 and passes through diaphragm at T9 and ends at the stomach at level of T10
bellowing out of the esophagus where it meets the stomach cardiac antrum
opening between the esophagus and the stomach(controlled by a sphincter of the same name) cardiac orifice
achalaysia cardiac sphincter doesnt open when it should
large diverticulum at distal portion of the esophagus zenchers pouch/diverticulum
which quadrant is the stomach located in LUQ
the stomach is what shape J shaped
where does the stomach empty into duodenum
what gastric enzymes are secreted in the stomach -pepsin -rennin -gastrin
what are the fold of the stomach that make up its mucosal layer called rugae
what is another name for the serous layer adventicia layer
what are the four parts of the stomach -cardia *cardiac orfice *cardiac sphincter -fundus -body -pyloric portion *pyloric antrum *pyloric canal *pyloric orifice(opening between stomach and duodenum) *pyloric sphincter
the curvature on the right side of stomach lesser
curvature on left side of stomach greater
part of stomach name for its proximity to the heart cardiac notch
located in the abdominopelvic cavity, it is 22ft long and is divided into three sections small intestines
what are the three divisions of the small intestine -duodenum -jejunum -illeum
what are the circular folds of the jejunum called(feather like appearance) plica circularis
the villi and plica circularis of the small intestine perform what function -provide more surface area -absorbtion
smallest portion of the small intestine, 8-10 inches long, and has 4 regions; superior, descending, horizontal, and ascending duodenum
second portion of small intestine, 9ft long jejunum
last section of small intestine, 13ft long, has a valve between it and the cecum ileum
what is the valve between the ileum and the cecum called ileocecal valve
a congenital sac or blind pouch found in the lower portion of the ileum, causing extreme abdominal pain meckel's divertivulum
caused by TB and unpastuarized milk peyer's patch
painful development of bleeding ulcers, can affect from mouth to anus, similar to ulcerative cholitis chrohn's disease
5ft long, begins in the RLQ at the ileocecal valve and finishes at the anus large intestine
what is the function of large intestine -reabsorption of fluids -elimination of waste
what are the parts of the large intestine -cecum -ascending colon -right colic(hepatic) flexure -transverse colon -left colic(splenic)flexure -descending colon -sigmoid colon -rectum -anal canal and anus
blind like pouch portion of the large intestine, below the junction of the ileum and colon cecum
-located in descending duodenum -connects biliary system with small intestine -ampulla of vater
sphincter that controls ampulla of vater sphincter of oddi
-found in the ascending colon -holds duodenum in place angle of treitz
about 15cm/6in, last section of colon, has both an internal and external sphincter(one is voluntary) rectum
sacs of colon that give segmented look haustra
longitudinal ribbons of smooth muscle, which contracts to create haustra taeniae coli
inflamation of appendix appendicitis
inflamitoy bowel disease ulcerative cholitis
lots of tiny diverticular in colon wall diverticular disease
cholelithiasis stones in the gallbladder
both endocrine and exocrine, exocrine function is the production of sugar regulating hormones pancreas
nest of cells that secret insulin and glucogon islets of langerhans
cholecyst bile/bag
pear shaped, located under liver, stimulated by CCK to contract and release bile gallbladder
weighs 3lbs, mainly found in the RUQ, consist of two lobes liver
what are the two lobes of the liver right and left
what are the two subdivisions of the right lobe of the liver -caudate -quadrate
seperates the two lobes of the liver falciform ligament
network of small blood vessels and connective tissue that forms capsule around liver capsule of gibson
the liver has a blank blood supply dual
produces bile and filters poisons liver
includes the liver, gallbladder, pancreas. produces, stores and delivers bile billiary system
made up of right and left hepatic ducts common hepatic duct
connects at the top of the gallbladder's neck to the common hepatic duct, it then joins the bile duct and pancreatic duct before dumping into the duodenum cystic duct
pancreatic duct is also called what duct of whirsong
what is CCK hormone release in the duodenum of small intestine, which stimulates the gallbladder to release bile as well as the pancreas to release pancreatic juice to aid in digestion
Created by: bigad1982