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Ch 2 Skeletal System

Clinical Kinesiology Chapter 2

Name the 5 functions of the Skeletal System: 1)Gives SUPPORT AND SHAPE to the body 2)PROTECTS vital organs 3)Assists with MOVEMENT (serves as LEVER ARMS) 4)Manufactures BLOOD CELLS 5)Stores CALCIUM & other MINERAL SALTS
Name the 2 types of skeleton: 1)Axial 2)Appendicular
The Axial skeleton consists of: 1) Trunk (thorax) 2) Vertebrae 3) Skull
Approximately how many bones make up the Axial skeleton? 80
The Appendicular skeleton consists of: 1) Pelvis 2) Scapulae 3) Extremities
Approximately how many bones make up the Appendicular skeleton? 126
Bones consist of __/__ organic (living) material and __/__ inorganic (non-living) material. 1/3 organic and 2/3 inorganic
What is the function of organic material in bone? provides elasticity
What is the function inorganic material in bone? provides hardness and strength
Bones can be considered _________ because they are made up of several different types of tissue. organs
Name the types of tissue present in bones: 1)Fibrous 2)Cartilaginous 3)Osseous 4)Nervous 5)Vascular
_______ ________ makes up the hard, dense outer shell of bones. Compact Bone
This type of bone completely covers the bone and tends to be thick along the shaft and thin at the ends of long bones: Compact Bone
This type of bone is thick in the plates of flat bones of the skull: Compact Bone
________ ________ is the porous and spongy inside portion of the bone. Cancellous Bone
These are the "little beams" that make up cancellous bones, which are arranged in a pattern that resists local stresses and strains: Trabeculae
The pores of cancellous bone are filled with: Marrow
The presence of _______ ________ makes the bones lighter. cancellous bone
________ ________ makes up most of the articular ends (epiphyses & metaphyses)of bones cancellous bone
The area of the bone at the articular end of the bone: epiphysis
The "mesh network" of bone that adds strength; its presence is related to the stress applied to that portion of bone: trabeculae (cancellous bone)
In adults, the epiphysis is __________. osseous (bone)
In children, the epiphysis is cartilaginous and called the _________ _________. epiphyseal plate
Longitudinal bone growth occurs here: epiphyseal plate
The main shaft of the bone: diaphysis
The diaphysis of the bone is mostly comprised of _________ ________. compact bone
Found in the center of the bone shaft (diaphysis) is the __________ ________. medullary canal
The medullary canal is hollow and contains ________ __________ and _________ __________. bone marrow & nutrient arteries
The lining of the medullary canal: endosteum
The endosteum contains _________, which are responsible for breaking down bone matrix (bone resorption). osteoclasts
The metaphysis is mostly comprised of _________ _________. cancellous bone
This is the thin fibrous membrane covering all of the bone (except the articular surfaces): periosteum
The articular surfaces of bones are covered with __________ __________. hyaline cartilage
The ___________ serves as an attachment point for tendons and ligaments. periosteum
The periosteum contains _________ and __________ __________ (which provide nourishment and aid in repairing the bone). nerves & blood vessels
Adult bones contain epiphyseal ________, whereas children's bones contain epiphyseal _________. lines / plates
The bone shape that makes up most of the appendicular skeleton. Long bones
The dimensions of _______ ________ are almost equal for length, width, and height. short bones
This bone shape is typically cuboidal/cubical: short bone
________ ________ have a lot of articular surface and tend to articulate with more than one bone. short bones
_______ _______ have a broad surface and are not very thick. flat bones
_______ _______ bones are compact-cancellous-compact bone 'sandwich.' flat bones
flat bones manufacture _____ ______. blood cells
Scapulae, ileum, frontal bone, parietal bone, sternum, and ribs are all examples of ________ ________. flat bones
Clavicle, radius, ula, femur, tibia, fibula, metatarsals, metacarpals, and phalanges are all examples of __________ _________. long bones
carpals and tarsals are examples of _______ _______. short bones
Vertebrae, sphenoid bone, ethmoid bone, sacrum, coccyx, and mandible are all examples of ________ ________. irregular bones
________ ________ are located where tendons cross long bones. sesamoid bones
_______ ________ change the angle of attachment of a tendon. They develop from within the tendon, and protect it from excessive wear. sesamoid bones
The patella and the small bones encased in some of the flexor tendons in the hand an foot are examples of ________ ________. sesamoid bones
The patella is a _______ _______ that is encased in the quadriceps tendon and increases the _________ ________ of the quadriceps muscle. sesamoid bone / mechanical advantage
There are no long or short bones in the ________ _________. axial skeleton
There are no irregular bones in the ________ ________. appendicular skeleton
Functions of sesamoid bones: 1) change the angle of attachent of a tendon 2)protect tendon from excessive wear.
We must be able to locate muscles on the body, in order to do that we use ________ ________. bone markings
As PTAs, we must be able to visualize the ________ ____ _______ of the muscle, which means we need to be able to describe the muscle's _________ and _________ so we can understand its action. angle of pull / origin & insertion
Name the bone markings that can be classified as holes or depressions: foramen, fossa, groove, meatus, sinus
Name the bone markings that can be classified as projections or processes that fit into joints: condyle, eminence, facet, head
Name the bone markings that can be classified as projections or processes that attach connective tissue: crest, epicondyle, line, spine, tubercle, tuberosity, trochanter
Created by: taranorwood