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Radiation Ch 2

Absorbed Dose The amount of energy deposited in any form of matter any type of radiation.
Absorption The process in which radiation imparts some or all of its energy to any material through which it passes.
Alpha Particle A common form of particulate radiation, containing two 2 protons and 2 neutrons and are positively charged.
Angstrom(A) A unit of measurement that describes the wavelengths of certain high frequency radiation. One angstrom (AU or A) measures 1/100,000,000 of a centimeter.
Atom The smallest particle of an element that has the properties of that element.
Atomic Number The total number of protons in the nucleus of an atom. Also called Z number.
Atomic Weight The total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom. Also called A number or Mass number.
Background Radiation Ionizing radiation that is always present.
Beta Particle A form of particulate radiation. High-speed negative electrons.
Binding Energy The internal energy within the atom that holds it components together.
Characteristic Radiation A form of radiation originating from and atom following removal of an electron or excitation of the atom.
Coherent Scattering Radiation that is scattered when a low-energy x-ray passes near an atom's outer electron.
Compton Effect (Scattering) An absorption process for x- gamma radiation in which a photon interacts with an orbital electron or an atom to form a displaced electron and a scattered photon (x-ray)of reduced energy.
Coulombs Per Kilogram (C/kg) Systeme Internationale unit for measuring exposure.
Decay The radioactive disintegration of the nucleus of an unstable atom by the emission of particles, photons of energy, or both.
Dose The amount of absorbed radiation in grays or rads at any given point.
Dose Equivalent Compares biological effects of various types of radiation. The product of the absorbed dose times a biological effect qualifying factor.
Electromagnetic Radiation Forms of energy propelled by wave motion as photons. a combination of electric and magnetic energy. Has no charge, mass, or weight and travels at the speed of light. Differs in wavelength and frequency.
Electromagnetic Spectrum Types of electromagnetic energies arranged in diagrammatic form on a chart.The longer wavelengths are measured in meters and and the shorter ones in centimeters or angstroms.
Electron A small negatively charged particle of the atom containing much energy and little mass.
Element A simple substance that cannot be decomposed by chemical means
Energy The ability to do work and overcome resistance.
Energy Levels Energy shells or orbits. Denoting spherical levels containing the electrons of the atom.
Exposure A measure of ionization produced in air by x- or gamma radiation.
Frequency The number of crests of a wavelength passing a given point per second.
Gamma Rays A form of electromagnetic radiation with properties identical to x-rays, usually produced spontaneously in the form of emission from radioactive substances.
General/Bremsstrahlung Radiation The stopping or slowing of the electrons of the cathode stream as they collide with the nuclei of the large target atoms.
Gray(Gy) Systeme Internationale unit for measuring absorbed dose. 1 GY= 100 rads; 1,000 milligrays= 1 Gy
Hard Radiation Rays of high energy and extremely short wavelengths. Essential for dental radiography.
Ion An electrically charged particle, either negative or positive.
Ion Pair A pair of ions, one positive and one negative.
Ionizing Radiation Radiation that is capable of producing ions.
Ionization The formation of ion pairs.
Isotope Alternate form of an element, having the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons inside the nucleus. Many isotopes are radioactive.
Kinetic Energy Energy possessed by a mass because of its motion.
Molecule Chemical combination of two or more atoms that forms the smallest particle of a substance that retains the properties of that substance.
Neutron One form of particulate radiation or subatomic particle. Has no electric charge and has about the same mass as a proton.
Photoelectric Effect A process for x- and gamma radiation in which a photon interacts with an orbital electron of an atom. All of the energy of the photon is absorbed by the displaced electron in the form of kinetic energy.
Photon A quantum of energy. Both x-rays and gamma rays are photons.
Rad Traditional unit for measuring absorbed dose. 100 rads= 1 gray(Gy). 1 rad= 0.01 Gy. 1,000 millirads= 1 rad
Radiation The emission and propagation of energy through space or through a material medium in the form of electromagnetic waves, corpuscular emissions, or rays of mixed and unknown types.
Created by: 1810356246