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Nutrition Sparks

BIOL 1322 terms

functional foods Foods that may provide additional health benefits beyond their nutrient value
Phytochemicals Nonnutritive plant compounds, found in fruits and vegetables, that may play a role in fighting chronic disease
Nutrition The science that studies how nutrients and compounds in foods nourish the body and affect body fx and overall health
Nutrients Compounds in foods that sustain body processes. There are 6 classes of nutrients: carbs, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals and water
Organic Compounds containing carbon or carbon-carbon bonds
Inorganic Compounds that do not contain carbon: minerals, water and salts
Essential nutrients Nutrients that must be consumed from foods because they cannot be made in the body in sufficient quantities to meet its needs and support health
Nonessential nutrients Nutrients that can be made in sufficient quantities in the body to meet body's reqs and support health
Energy The capacity to do work
Energy-yeilding nutrients The 3 nutrients that provide energy in the body: carbohydrates, lipids, protein
Kilocalorie (kcal) The amt of energy required to raise the temp of 1 kilogram of water 1 degree C; used to express the measurement of energy in foods; 1 kcal = 1000 cal
Macronutrients Organic nutrients, including the energy-containing carbs, lipids, proteins, and water that the body needs in large amounts.
Micronutrients Essential nutrients the body needs in smaller amts; vitamins and minerals
Enzymes Proteins in living cells that act as catalysts and control chemical reactions
Coenzymes Substances, such as vitamins or minerals, that facilitate the activity of enzymes
Solubility The ability to dissolve into another substance
Water-soluble vitamins Vitamins that dissolve in water; gen cannot be stored in the body and must be consumed daily
Fat-soluble vitamins Vitamins that dissolve in fat and can be stored in the body
major minerals Minerals needed by the body in amts greater than 5 grams; aka macrominerals
Trace minerals Minerals needed by the body in amts less than 5 grams; aka microminerals
Consensus Agreed-upon conclusion of a group of experts based on a collection of info
Scientific Method A process used by scientists to gather and test info for the sake of generating sound reasearch findings.
Hypothesis An idea or explanation proposed by scientists based on observations or known facts
peer-reviewed journal A journal in which scientists publish research findings, after the findings have gone through a rigorous review process by other scientists
laboratory experiment A scientific experiment conducted in a lab. Some lab experiments involve animals.
Observational Research Research that involves systematically observing subjects to see if there is a relationship to certain outcomes.
Experimental Research Research involving at least 2 groups of subjects
Epidemiological research Research that studies the variables that influence health in a pop; often observational.
Experimental Group In experimental research, the group of participants given a specific treatment, e.g. drug, as part of a study.
control group experimental research: group that does not receive the treatment but may be given a placebo instead; used as a standard for comparison.
placebo An inactive substance, such as a sugar pill, administered to a control group during an experiment
Double-blind placebo-controlled study An experimental study in which neither the researchers nor the subjects in the study are aware who is receiving the treatment or the placebo
Nutritional Genomics A field of study of the relationship between genes, gene expression, and nutrition.
Gene expression processing of genetic information to create a specific protein
Registered Dietician (RD) Health professional who is a food and nutrition expert: RD's obtain a college degree in nutrition from an American Dietetic Association (ADA) accredited program, and pass an exam to become a RD
malnourished cond. that results when the body does not receive the right amt of essential nutrients to maintain health; overnourished or undernourished are forms of malnutrition
undernourished cond. in which the individual lacks sufficient energy or is deficient in quality or quantity of essential nutrients
overnourished overconsumption of energy or nutrients
acute sudden onset of symptoms or disease
chronic symptom or condition that lasts over a long period of time
malabsorption problem associated with a lack of absorption of nutrients through the intestinal tract
body mass index (BMI) measurement calculated as a height divided by weight squared; used to determine whether an individual is underweight, at a healthy weight, or overweight or obese.
Overweight for adults, a BMI greater than 25
Obesity for adults, a BMI greater than 30
Discuss factors influencing food choice Taste, Environment, Social Trends, Body Image, Advertising, Time, convenience and costs
How does good nutrition affect health? reduces the risk of many chronic diseases: heart disease, cancer, stroke, diabetes
Carbohydrates Primary energy source for the body, composed of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen and supply simple sugar - glucose
Lipids organic compounds including fats, oils, phospholipids, and sterols insoluble in water. Important source for body during rest and sleep.
Proteins Contain Nitrogen. Provide basic building blocks - amino acids, to synthesize, grow, and maintain tissues in the body. Tissues in muscles, bones and skin are primarily made of proteins. Also nt's and enzymes in chem reax
Vitamins do not provide energy...help catalyze reax as coenzymes - 13 known vitamins.
Created by: JaeLaw23