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Chapter 8 Vocab

Accessory muscles The secondary muscles of respiration
AVPU A method of assessing a patient's level of consciousness by determining whether a patient is Awake and alert, responsive to Verbal stimulus or Pain, or Unresponsive; used principally n the initial assessment
body substance isolation (BSI) An infection control concept and practice that assumes that all body fluids are potentially infectious
breath sounds An indication of air movement in the lungs, usually assessed with a stethoscope
capillary refill A test that evaluates distal circulatory system function by squeezing (blanching) blood from an area such as a nail bed and watching the speed of its return after releasing the pressure
chief complaint The reason a patient called for help; also, the patient's response to general questions such as "What's wrong?" or "What happened?"
coagulate To form a clot to plug an opening in an injure blood vessel and stop bleeding
conjuctiva The delicate membrane that lines the eyelids and covers the exposed surface of the eye
crepitus A grating or grinding sensation caused by fractured bone ends or joints rubbing together; also air bubbles under the skin that produce a crackling sound or crinkly feeling
cyanosis Bluish-gray skin color that is caused by reduced oxygen levels in the blood
DCAP-BTLS A mnemonic for assessment in which each area of the body is evaluate for Deformities, Contusions Abrasions, Punctures/Penetrations, Burns, Tenderness, Lacerations, and Swelling
detailed physical exam The part of the assessment process in which a detailed area-by-area exam is performed on patients whose problems cannot be readily identified or when more specific information is needed about problems identified in the focused history and physical exam
focused history and physical exam The part of the assessment process in which the patient's major complaints or any problems that are immediately evident are further and more specifically evaluated
frostbite Damage to tissues as the result of exposure to cold; frozen or partially frozen body parts
general impression The overall initial impression that determines the priority for patient care; based on the patient's surroundings, the mechanism of injury, signs and symptoms, and the chief complaint
Golden Hour The time from injury to definitive care, during which treatment of shock or traumatic injuries should occur because survival potential is best
guarding Involuntary muscle contractions (spasm) of the abdominal wall in an effort to protect the inflamed abdomen; a sign of peritonitis
hypothermia A condition in which the internal body temperature falls below 95F (35C) after exposure to a cold environment
initial assessment The part of the assessment process that helps you to identify any immediately or potentially life-threatening conditions so that you can initiate lifesaving care
jaundice A yellow skin color that is seen in patients with liver disease or dysfunction
mechanism of injury(MOI) The way in which traumatic injuries occur; the forces that act on the body to cause damage
nasal flaring Flaring out of the nostrils, indicating that there is an airway obstruction
nature of illness (NOI) The general type of illness a patient is experiencing
ongoing assessment The part of the assessment process in which problems are reevaluated and responses to treatment are assessed
orientation the mental status of a patient as measured by memory of person (name), place (current location), time (current year, month, and approximate date), and event (what happened).
OPQRST The six pain questions: Onset, Provoking factors, Quality, Radiation, Severity, Time.
palpate examine by touch
paradoxical motion The motion of the chest wall section that is detached in a flail chest; the motion is exactly the opposite of normal motion during breathing (ie, in during inhalation, out during exhalation)
rales Crackling, rattling, breath sound that signals fluid in the air spaces of the lungs; also called crackles
responsiveness The way in which a patient responds to external stimuli, including verbal stimuli(sound), tactile stimuli(touch), and painful stimuli.
retractions Movements in which the skin pulls in around the ribs during inspiration
rhonchi Coarse, low-pitched breath sounds heard in patients with chronic mucus in the upper airways
SAMPLE history A key brief history of patient's condition to determine Sings/Symptoms, Allergies, Medications, Pertinent past history, Last oral intake, and Events leading to the illness/injury
scene size-up A quick assessment of the scene and the surroundings made to provide information about its safety and the mechanism of injury or nature of illness, before you enter and begin patient care
sclera The white portion of the eye; the tough outer coat that gives protection to the delicate, light-sensitive, inner layer
stridor A harsh, high-pitched inspiratory sound that is often heard in acute laryngeal (upper airway) obstruction; may sound like crowing and be audible without a stethoscope
subcutaneous emphysema The presence of air in soft tissues, causing a characteristic crackling sensation of palpation
triage The process of establishing treatment and transportation priorities according to severity of injury and medical need
two-to-three word dyspnea A severe breathing problem in which a patient can speak only two to three words at a time without pausing to take a breath
Created by: mstout1



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