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Dysphagia

QuestionAnswer
Morals a person's judgments or decisions regarding specific behaviors/conduct as either good or bad
Values judgment of relative worth or importance of something; whatever is deemed proper, desirable, or worthwhile
Justice fairness; legal correctness; administration of fairness by impartial adjustment of conflicting aims
Law rules of conduct that are derived from cultural or community standards or moral and ethical behavior
Ethics the science or philosophy of balancing values; the principles of conduct governing and individual or a group
Clinical Ethics the identification, analysis, and resolution of moral problems concerning a particular patient
Professional Ethics the standards or rules of professional behavior which are set out by a profession (e.g., ASHA)
Bioethics discipline dealing with the ethical implications of biological research and applications, especially in medicine
Paternalism the practice of overriding or ignoring a person’s preferences in order to benefit them of enhance their welfare (from caregiver’s perspective)
Autonomy the right to self-determination; respect of individuals as self-determining agents
Beneficence the obligation to benefit the patient
Non-Malfeasance the obligation to do no harm
Respect provision of necessary supports/protections to assist individuals with impaired autonomy such that the individual can meet their presently held, or at least previously held values as much as possible
Standard of Substituted Judgment whoever makes decisions for the patient must attempt to make decisions that the patient would have made for himself to the degree that those preferences are known
Standard of Best Interest guiding principle for surrogate decision makers when the patient’s preferences before the injury are unknown or rendered moot because f the present circumstances (broad application of beneficence)
Quality of Life subjective judgment characterizing what makes one’s life worth living
Surrogate decision-maker a person who acts on behalf of patients
Competence legal term used by the courts to describe a person’s overall ability to manage their affairs, including financial, social and making clinical decisions
Decision Making Capacity patient’s ability to make specific decisions regarding his own current or future medical care; can be determined clinically and does not require court involvement;
Consent a formal and voluntary agreement obtained from a person who is informed about the potential risks and benefits of an action;
Assent an informal agreement obtained from a patient who cannot participate in a fully informed decision and cannot give true informed consent, but can express an opinion about their wishes and goals for their clinical care
Advance Directives formal statement of a person’s preferences for treatment of non-treatment decisions, typically about end-of-life decisions; most common forms are living will and durable power of attorney
Living Will written request to forego certain treatment in the event of specific circumstances
Durable Power of Attorney for Health Care (DPAHC): allows a person to name someone to make decisions on his behalf should he become unable to participate in medical decision making
Malpractice Basics duty of care (must prove a “special” relationship between you and patient); standard or care (duty to exercise reasonable degree of skill, knowledge, and care; foreseeable harm (only liable if there was a foreseeable
Oral Prep Normal -mastication -form cohesive bolus (requires laryngeal control) -labial seal, buccal tension -BOT up & velum down to prevent premature spillage
Oral Transit Normal -A-P stripping of the tongue -tongue ramping -VP port closed -bolus moves towards sensory trigger
Pharyngeal Stage Normal -hyolaryngeal elevation, epiglottis inversion, UES opens -sup→inf pharyngeal stripping -BOT retraction to meet pharyngeal wall -TVF & FVF adduction -arytenoids rock in together/medialize & adduct to prevent penetration
Esophageal Normal -UES should stay closed -bolus in esophagus -peristalsis moves bolus towards LES -LES opens
Created by: adwork1