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AP EXAM (ELKINS)

Anatomy FINAL EXAM 2011 Review (1-3, 5-7)

QuestionAnswer
The root "homeo-" means... Same
The root "hetero-" means... Different
An informed, uncertain but testable idea is a(n)... Hypothesis
Structure that can be observed with the naked eye... Gross anatomy
The simplest structures considered to be a live are... Cells
The urethra is found in the ___ region of the abdomen... Hypogastric
Self-amplifying chain of physiological events is called... Positive feedback
Palpation is the studying of anatomy by means of... Touch
The heart is ___ to the lungs... Medial
The lungs are ___ tot he heart... Lateral
Which organ system regulates blood volume, controls acid-base balance and stimulates red blood cell production? Circulatory system
Words composed of the first letter, or first few letters, of a series of words... Acronyms
The ___ region consists of the head, neck and the trunk Axial
The heart is IN the ... Mediastinum
The technique for listening tot he sounds of the heart valves... Auscultation
There are more ___ than cells in the body. Organelles
Study of structure... Anatomy
Methods of viewing the inside of the body by means of surgery... Exploratory surgery
Study of function Physiology
Studying the function of more than one organism and using them, together, to understand functions in other species Comparative physiology
Single, complete individual and the largest level in the hierarchy of complexity Organism
Masses of similar cells and cell products that form a discrete region of an organ and perform a specific function Tissues
The smallest units of an organism, and the smallest units of life in general, are called cells Cells
Sum of all an individual's internal chemical reactions Metabolism
Refers to the fact that the whole organism cannot be fully explained by the actions of its parts Holism
A large, complex system such as the human body can be understood by studying its simpler components Reductionism
Changes in DNA structure Mutation
Scientist predicts what the results of a certain experiment will be if his/her hypothesis is correct Deduction
Cutting and separating tissue to reveal structural relationships is called ... Dissection
Invented many components of the compound microscope and named the tiny 'compartments' he observed "cells" Robert Hooke
Composed of lipids and proteins and surrounds the cellular components Plasma membrane
Major features of human anatomy have standard international names prescribed by the ... Terminologia Anatomica
Membranes lining the cranial cavity Meninges
Physiological effects of a person's mental state are called ___ effects Psychosomatic
Refers to fine detail, down to the molecular level Ultrastructure
Rejected all eponyms and gave each structure unique Latin names used world-wide Nomina Anatomica
Tendency of the body to maintain stable internal conditions Homeostasis
Transformation of cells with no specialized function into cells that are committed to a specific task Differentiation
Self-correcting mechanisms in physiology Feedback mechanisms
Terms coined from the names of people Eponyms
Arrangement of polypeptide into a fibrous or globular shape is called its... Tertiary structure
12 elements that account for a mere 0.7% of body weight are known as... Trace elements
An ionic bond is formed when an anion meets a(n)... Cation
A substance that contains at least two different elements is considered to be a(n)... Chemical compound
A substance capable of dissolving freely in water is... Hydrophilic
The process of removing an electron from a substance and creating a positive ion Oxidation
A substance which does not dissolve readily in water Hydrophobic
Time required for 1/2 of a radioactive elements atoms to decay to a more stable state is the ... Physical half-life
The only polysaccharide synthesized in the human body Glycogen
Water molecules form a ___ which isolates the individual ions, keeping them dissolved within a solution Hydration sphere
Carbohydrates supply more ___ than proteins can. Energy storage
The ratio of products to reactants is stable in a state of ___ Equilibrium
The study of molecules that compose living things Biochemistry
Feature that most distinguishes a lipid from a carbohydrate is that a lipid has a ___ ratio of oxygen to hydrogen Lower
When an atom gives up an electron and acquires a positive charge, it is called a(n)... Cation
Dietary antioxidants are important because they neutralize Free radicals
When an atom gains an electron and thus an overall negative charge Anion
Inorganic elements that are extracted from the soil by plants and are key to our survival Minerals
Any substance that increases the rate of a reaction without being consumed by it is a(n) .... Enzyme
All of the synthesis reactions in the body form a division of metabolism called Anabolism
All of the decomposition reactions which take place in the body... Catabolism
A chemical reaction that joins two organic molecules and produces water as a by-product Dehydration synthesis
Amphiphilic lipids of a cell membrane Phospholipids
Substance acted upon and changed by an enzyme is called the enzyme's Substrates
The outer-most energy level of an atom Valence shell
3D shape of a protein Conformation
Drastic conformational change in response to conditions such as extreme heat or pH and often results in the destruction of a protein's function Denaturation
Capacity to do work Energy
Arranged all of the known elements according to their atomic number Periodic table
Potential energy stored in the bonds of molecules is known as... Chemical energy
Study of molecules that compose living things Biochemistry
Forms the "backbone" of organic compounds Carbon
Water is capable of dissolving most substances and is known as the ... Universal solvent
Number of protons within the nucleus Atomic number
Simplest form of matter to have unique chemical properties Element
Chemical particles with odd number of electrons Free radicals
Substances that ionize in water Electrolytes
Substances that release H+ in solution Acids
Consists of substances that are physically blended together Mixture
Tendency of a substance to cling to itself Cohesion
Attraction of water particles to a glass Adhesion
Particles scatter light and are often cloudy Colloids
Proton acceptor Base
Proton donator Acid
Particles are too heavy to remain permanently dissolved so they separate upon standing Suspension
Most cellular membrane components are made by the... Endoplasmic reticulum
Membrane carriers resemble enzymes except for the fact that carriers do not ___ their ligands Chemically change
Aquaporins are transmembrane proteins that promote Osmosis
Which of the following is not part of the cytoskeleton Organelles
Human cells will swell or shrink in any solution other than a(n) ___ one Isotonic
__ endocytosis is a more selective form of either phagocytosis or pinocytosis Isotonic
Process by which a physical pressure forces fluid through a selectively permeable membrane Filtration
Plasma membrane gates that open or close in response to changes in the electrical charge difference across the membrane Voltage-gated channels
Process by which a mechanical pressure applied to one side of the system can override osmotic pressure and drive water through a membrane against its concentration gradient Reverse osmosis
Concentrated solution that causes a cell to shrink Hypertonic
Difference in concentration between one point and another Concentration gradient
Gate in the plasma membrane that opens or closes when a chemical binds t it is called a(n) Ligand-gated channel
Fusion of secretory vesicle with the plasma membrane, and release of the vesicles contents, is called ___ Exocytosis
Detoxify harmful substances within the cell: smooth ER and ____ Peroxisomes
Network of protein filaments and cylinders that structurally support a cell Cytoskeleton
Composed of carbohydrate moieties of membrane glycolipids and glycoproteins Glycocalyx
Ability of a microscope to reveal detail is referred to as it's Resolution
Force exerted on a membrane by water is called Hydrostatic pressure
Side of membrane that faces the cytoplasm Intracellular face
Side of plasma membrane that faces the external environment of the cell Extracellular face
Hydrostatic pressure required on one side to halt the process of osmosis called ... Osmotic pressure
Space enclosed by the unit membrane of the Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum is called the... Cisterae
Clear, stucture-less gel in a cell Cytosol
Cells specialized for absorption of matter from extracellular fluid are likely to show an abundance of Microvilli
Active transport can occur only within a ___ cell Living
Process of enclosing extracellular fluid in which the plasma membrane sinks in and pinches off small vesicles containing droplets of fluid Pinocytosis
Inner membrane of the mitochondria has folds called ___ which project like shelves into the matrix Cristae
Process by which lysosomes digest and dispose of surplus or non-vital organelles and other cell components in order to cycle nutrients withing the cell Autophagy
Carrier which performs cotransport Symport
Hairlike projections along the cell surface which play a role in sensory function and locomotion Cilia
Movement of material without the aid of ATP Passive transport
Net flow of water through a membrane from high to low concentration Osmosis
Unpaired centrioles at the base of a cilium or flagellum Basal body
Vesicular transport of particles into a cell Endocytosis
Sacs produced b the Golgi apparatus which contains enzymes for intracellular digestion, autophagy, programmed cell death and glucose mobilization Lysosomes
The seminiferous tubule (narrow, secretory tube/passage) of the testis is lined with ___ epithelium Stratified cuboidal
___ epithelium is found in areas/organs which undergo a certain amount of 'stretching' as required by the body Transitional
___ connective tissue is used for energy storage, thermal insulation and heat production Adipose
The most abundant formed element in the blood is the ___ Erythrocytes
Erythrocytes Red blood cells
Leukocytes White blood cells
Connections between one cell and another Cell junctions
Single layer of square, almost rounded cells Simple cuboidal epithelium
External surface of the stomach is covered by Serosa
Internal surface of the stomach is covered by Mucosa
Encircle epithelial cells, joining each cell securely to the other Tight junctions
Collagen of areolar tissue is produced by Fibroblasts
Tendons are composed of ___ connective tissue Dense regular
The shape of the external ear is primarily due to... Elastic cartilage
Most abundant and only significant adipose tissue of the body Yellow fat
Separates the upper layers of epithelial tissue from the connective tissue below, within the skin Basement membrane
Occur in small numbers in mature organs or tissues throughout a person's life and have the ability to differentiate into a limited number of cell types Adult stem cells
Found within the embryo and are capable in differentiating into nearly any cell type required; controversial Embryonic stem cells
Found in fetuses, stores lipids in the form of multiple globules rather that one large one making it easier to break down Brown fat
Undifferentiated cells Stem cells
Relatively stiff connective tissue with flexible rubbery matrix Cartilage
Premature, pathological tissue death Necrosis
Artificial production of tissues and organs in a lab setting and used for implantation in the human body Tissue engineering
Osseous tissue Bone
Replacement of dead or damaged cells by the same cell type present before hand Regeneration
Replacement of damaged tissue with scar tissue, like in severe injuries Fibrosis
Programmed cell death Apoptosis
Most abundant, widely distributed and variable primary tissue Connective tissue
Hereditary defect in elastin Marfan syndrome
Most embryonic and childhood growth occurs by; tissue growth through multiplication Hyperplasia
Muscles not exercised exhibit disuse ___ and their cells become smaller Atrophy
Development of more specialized form and function Differentiation
Fluid connective tissue that travels through tubular vessels throughout the body Blood
Occupies the "empty space" within a tissue; usually gelatinous or rubbery in consistency Ground substance
Basis for excitation of a cell/tissue Membrane potential
Constitute most of the volume of the nervous tissue Glial cells
Densely packed, parallel, often wavy collagen fibers Dense regular connective tissue
Found in the heart Cardiac muscle
Gland which maintains contact with surface by means of a duct Exocrine
Gland which releases secretion by exocytosis Merocrine
Glandular secretion which contains the product and the disintegrated cellular parts Holocrine
Lacks striations and is involuntary Smooth muscle
Loose network of reticular fibers and cells, infiltrated with numerous leukocytes Reticular tissue
Product of a gland which is beneficial to the body Secretion
Type of gland which releases products into the blood stream; has no surface duct Endocrine
Waste product removed by means of a gland Excretion
Abnormal redness of the skin Erythema
Brownish black melanin Eumelanin
Bruise Hematoma
Cancer-causing radiation which leaks through our ozone layer Ultraviolet
Covers body and provides a barrier to pathogens and to excessive water loss Skin
Dilating of blood vessels; plays a role in relieving body of excess heat Vasodilation
Genetic lack of melanin Albinism
Immune cells of the epidermis Dendritic cells
Majority of epidermal cells Keratinocytes
Needed for bone development and maintenance; skin is the first step of it's synthesis Vitamin D
Red pigment of blood Hemoglobin
Reddish-yellow melanin Pheomelanin
Scientific study of medical treatment of the integumentary system Dermatology
Tough protein which fills the upper epidermal cells; water-proofing barrier Keratin
Undifferentiated cells giving rise to keratinocytes Stem cells
Sweating without noticeable wetness of the skin Insensible sweating
Burn which destroys the entire dermis Third degree
Nourishes the hair Dermal papillae
Muscle that causes hair to stand on end Piloerector
Cells which synthesize melanin and aid in the overall production of skin and hair pigmentation Melanocytes
Blueness of the skin due to low oxygen concentration in the blood Cyanosis
Cerumen Earwax
Zone in epidermis which consists mainly of a single layer of cuboudal to columnar stem cells and keratinocytes rising from the basement membrane Stratum basale
Hair 'growing' stage Anagen
Composed of clumps of dander stuck together by sebum Dandruff
Holocrine glands that secrete into hair follicle Sebaceous
Process of removing burned skin from a patient Debridement
Condition in which hair is lost from select regions of the scalp rather than thinning uniformly across the whole scalp Pattern baldness
Cells of this epidermal layer are keratinized and dead Stratum corneum
What skin condition or appearance would most likely result from liver failure? Jaundice
Arm hair Vellus hair
"scent" gland Apocrine gland
Skin cells with a sensory roll Tactile cells
Alert immune system to pathogens; found within the sin Dendritic cells
Which glands play a role in hearing? Ceruminous glands
Most common type of kin cancer Basale cell carcinoma
Burns which involve the epidermis and part of the dermis, but leave at least some of the dermis intact Second degree
The femur is a ___ bone. Long
Poor nutrition, lack of vitamin D and lack of exercise are all risk factors for... Osteoporosis
Cells that have a ruffled border and secrete hydrochloric acid Osteoclasts
Forms blood cells and platelets Bone marrow
___ contribute a flexibility to bones to prevent them from shattering when a great force is applied to them Collagen fibers
One long bone meets another at it's ___ Epiphysis
Osteoclasts are most closely related, by common descent, to which connective tissue cell? Blood cells
Blood is also known as what type of tissue? Myeloid
Spurt of growth at puberty results from cell proliferation and hypertrophy in the ___ Epiphyseal plate
Walls between cartilage lacunae break down in the zone of ____; where osseous tissue is beginning to replace it Bone deposition
Thin layer of reticular connective tissue called the __ lines the internal marrow cavity Endosteum
Tiny cavities that contain the osteocytes Lacunae
Stems cells which develop from embryonic mesenchymal cells Osteogenic cells
Calcium phosphate crystallizes in bone as... Hyrdoxyapatite
Osteocytes contact each other through channels called __in the bone matrix Canaliculi
A bone increases in diameter only by ___ growth Appositional growth
Addition of new cells within a tissue Interstitial growth
Addition of new cells on the surface of a tissue Appositional growth
Calcium deficiency which may cause death by suffocation Hypocalcemia
Cells that secrete collagen and stimulate calcium phosphate deposition Osteoblasts
Most active form of vitamin D produced mainly by the kidneys Calcitrol
Combination of two basic structural materials (spongy bone and compact bone) Composite
Transitional region between epiphyseal cartilage and primary marrow cavity of young bone Metaphysis
Softening of the bones which occurs in adults Osteomalacia
Epiphyseal plate becomes the ___ after a person reaches adulthood Epiphyseal line
Formation of bone; ossification or __ Osteogenesis
Marrow which no longer produces blood cells Yellow marrow
Basic structural unit of compact bone Osteon
Collagen fibers from the periosteum which become continuous with tendons that bind muscle to bone Perforating fibers
Softening of the bones which takes place in children Rickets
Break in the bone weakened by some other disease Pathological fracture
Carpals and tarsals Short bones
Central cavity found in a long bone which contains the marrow Medullary cavity
Composed of bones, cartilages, and ligaments joined tightly to form a strong, flexible framework Skeletal system
Connective tissue in which matrix is hardened by deposition of calcium phosphate and other minerals Osseous tissue
Covers the surface of a bone which is part of a joint Articular cartilage
Fracture caused by abnormal trauma to a bone Stress fracture
Head of bone found at each end Epiphysis
Minute holes penetrating the bone... Nutrient foramina
Secreted by the parathyroid hormone and is released when blood calcium is low PTH
Shaft of the bone Diaphysis
Sheath which covers the external portion of a bone Periosteum
Spongy layer of bone within the cranium Diploe
Sternum and shoulder blade Flat bones
Study of bone Osteology
Thin layer of connective tissue which lines the internal marrow cavity Endosteum
Vertebrae Irregular bones
Created by: SavannahElkins