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Cell Biology

Cell Structure and Function, Osmosis and Diffusion

cell basic units of life
cell theory All living things are composed of cells. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things. New cells are produced from existing cells.
prokaryotes Cells that have genetic material that is NOT contained in a nucleus
eukaryotes Cells that contain a nucleus in which their genetic material is separated from the rest of the cell.
organelles The structures inside the cell that act as specialized organs
nuclear envelope surrounds the nucleus and controls what goes in and out of the nucleus through the nuclear pores
chromatin DNA bound to protein and contained in the nucleus of the cell
ribosomes The organelle in the eukaryotic cell that is responsible for protein synthesis (manufacture).
Endoplasmic Reticulum The organelle in a eukaryotic cell where lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled, along with proteins and other materials that are exported from the cell. Equate to the assembly line in a manufacturing center
nucleus The cell organelle that contains the cells DNA. The DNA in the nucleus contains the coded instructions for making proteins and other important molecules. The nucleus is the "brain" of the cell.
Golgi apparatus This organelle modifies, sorts, and packages proteins and other materials as they come off the endoplasmic erticulum for storage in the cell or secretion outside the cell. The packaging and shipping center. Like FedEx!
Lysosomes Cell organelles filled with enzymes for the digestion or breakdown or lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins into small molecules that can be used by the rest of the cell.
Cell Membrane Thin flexible barrier aroun a cell that regulates what enters and leaves the cell.
Cell Wall Strong supporting layer around the cell membrane in plants, algae and some bacteria. NOTE: ANIMAL CELLS DO NOT HAVE CELL WALLS.
Centriole One of two tiny structures located in the cytoplasm of animal cells that is involved in cellular reproduction. Centrioles organize the microtubules of the cytoskeleton to form the spindle fibers that help to separate chromosomes during nuclear division.
Chlorophyll Principle pigment of plants and other photosynthetic organisms. This pigment captures light energy.
Chloroplast Organelle found in cells of plants that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy in the process known as photosynthesis.
chromatid One of two identical "sister" parts of a duplicated chromosome
Cilia Short hairlike projections similar to flagella which produce movement in many cells.
Chromosome Threadlike structure within the nucleus containing the genetic information that is passed from one generation to the next.
Cytoplasm Material inside the cell membrane but outside of the nucleus in which all of the organelles float.
Diffusion Process by which molecules tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated.
Flagella A whip-like structure that provides a cell with the ability to move from place to place.
Mitochondria Cell organelle that converts the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use. Where the process of cellular respiration takes place. The "battery" of the cell
Nucleolus Small, dense region within the nucleus of many cells that is the site where ribosomes are made.
Osmosis Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane.
Passive transport The diffusion of particles or substances across the cell membrane without the use of energy.
Active Transport Energy requiring process that moves material across the cell membrane against a concentration gradient. For example: from a lower concentration to a higher concentration.
Unicellular Single celled organism
Vacuole Cell organelle that stores water, food, proteins, or waste for movement inside and outside of the cell.
Cytoskeleton The network of protein filaments that helps the cell to maintain its shape. The cytoskeleton is also involved in cell movement.
Nuclear Pore (blank)
Isotonic The concentration of a solute is the same on both sides of the cell membrane. The system is in equilibrium with the concentration of the solute the same inside and outside of the cell.
Hypertonic The concentration of solute outside the membrane is higher than the concentration of solute inside the cell membrane. Water will move outside the cell and the cell will shrink.
Hypotonic The concentration of solute inside the cell is higher than the concentration outside the cell. Water will flow across the cell membrane into the cell and eventually cause the cell to burst.
Facilitated Diffusion Molecules that cannot diffuse across the cell membranes bilipid layer move through protein channels within the membrane instead.
Endocytosis The process of taking material into the cell by means of pockets of the cell membrane. The pocke breaks loose forming a vacuole within the cytoplasm. This is a form of active transport--requiring energy.
Exocytosis The membrane of a vacuole fuses with the cell membrane forcing the contents of the vacuole out of the cell. This is an example of active transport--requiring energy.
Phagocytosis Extensions of cytoplasm surround a particle and package it within a food vacuole. The cell then engulfs it. The requires energy and is a form of active transport.
Cell specialization The process in which cells throughout an organism can develop in different ways to perform different tasks. Examples: Neurons--nerve cells. Red Blood Cells
What are the levels of organization in a multicellular organism? Cells, tissues, organs, organ systems
Created by: smerrill
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