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AP Psych Ch 18 Vocab

Psychology Eighth Edition by David G. Myers

TermDefinition
Social Psychology the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
Attribution Theory how we explain someones behavior: either to their situation or the person’s disposition.
Fundamental Attribution Error when observing others, overestimating influence of a personality and underestimating influence of situations.
Dispositional Attribution Versus Situational Attribution the explanation of individual behavior as a result caused by internal characteristics that reside within the individual, as opposed to outside (situational) influences that stem from the environment or culture in which that individual is found.
Actor-Observer Bias actors tend to attribute the causes of their behavior to stimuli inherent in the situation, while observers tend to attribute behavior to stable dispositions of the actor
Self-Serving Bias people attribute their successes to internal or personal factors but attribute their failures to situational factors beyond their control.
Self-Perception people develop their attitudes by observing their behaviour and concluding what attitudes must have caused them.
Foot-in-the-door Phenomenon tactic that involves getting a person to agree to a large request by first setting them up by having that person agree to a modest request.
Cognitive Dissonance theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. Ex. When our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing out attitudes.
Reframing seeing a situation through a new outlook
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy prediction that directly or indirectly causes itself to become true, by the very terms of the prophecy itself, due to positive feedback between belief and behavior.
Confirmation Bias a tendency for people to favor information that confirms their preconceptions or hypotheses regardless of whether the information is true.
Blaming the Victim Effect girl got raped, blame that she was wearing a mini skirt and walking on the wrong side of town.
Conformity adjusting one’s behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.
Chameleon Effect nonconscious mimicry of the postures, mannerisms, facial expressions, and other behaviors of one's interaction partners, such that one's behavior passively and unintentionally changes to match that of others in one's current social environment.
Group Pressure the overall group causing one to alter their decision
Solomon Asch line experiment. Participants agreed with the group even when they saw the answer was blatenly incorrect.
Normative Social Influence influence resulting from a person’s desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval.
Informational Social Influence influence resulting from one’s willingness to accept others’ opinions about reality.
Stanley Milgram measured the willingness of study participants to obey an authority figure who instructed them to perform acts that conflicted with their personal conscience.
Social Facilitation stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others.
Social Loafing the tendency for people in a group to exert toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable.
Deindividuation the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.
Phillip Zimbardo twenty-four students were selected to play in a mock prison in the basement of Stanford. Participants adapted to their roles well beyond what was expected, leading the officers to display authority and to subject some of the prisoners to torture
Group Polarization the enhancement of a group’s prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group.
Groupthink the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives.
Minority Influence form of social influence, which takes place when a majority is being influenced to accept the beliefs or behaviour of a minority.
Prejudice an unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predispositions to discriminatory action.
Stereotype a generalized( sometimes accurate but after over generalized) belief about a group of people.
Discrimination unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group or its members.
Ingroup Bias us-people with whom one shares a common identity.
Scapegoat Theory the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame.
Aggression any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy.
Frustration-Aggression Principle the principle that frustration-the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal-creates anger, which can generate aggression.
Conflict a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas.
Social Traps a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior.
Cooperation V. Competition (The Prisoner's Dilema) humans often act more cooperatively than strict self-interest would seem to dictate. Evidence from natural experiments for high stakes support the claim that humans act more cooperatively than strict self-interest would dictate
Mere Exposure Effect the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them.
Geographic Nearness Similarity, Proximity, Familiarity
Matching Hypothesis/Phenomenon suggests why people become attracted to their partner. It claims that people are more likely to form long standing relationships with those who are equally physically attractive as they are.
Passionate Love an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship.
Companionate Love the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are interwined.
Altruism unselfish regard for the welfare of others.
Bystander Effect the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present.
Darley and Latane Experiment people do not always intervene at the scene of an emergency. Interest stemming from the case of Kitty Genovese, the New Yorker who was murdered in a New York suburb in March 1964 in the presence of 38 witnesses, none of whom even telephoned the police.
Diffusion of Responsibility social phenomenon which tends to occur in groups of people above a certain critical size when responsibility is not explicitly assigned.
Social Exchange Theory an expectation that people will help those dependent upon them.
Reciprocity Norm an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them.
Social-Responsibility Norm an expectation that people will help those dependent upon them.
Muzafer Sherif superordinate goals (goals so large that it requires more than one group to achieve the goal) reduced conflict significantly more effectively than other strategies (e.g., communication, contact).
Superordinate Goals shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation.
GRIT Strategy initiatives in tension-reduction-a strategy designed to decrease international tensions.
Created by: BrandonMush