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Unit 1 163 Pima

Oral Rad PIMA

We are continually exposed to natural background radiation. Natural background includes... radiation from radioactive materials in nature and radiation from outer space
When does thermionimic emission occur... when the tungsten filament is heated
dental x-ray is produced when... high speed electrons strike a target
x-rays are... ionizing, electromagnetic radiation
Accourding to the inverse square law, the intensity of radiation is ______ proportional to the _____ from the source of radiation... inversely, square of the distance
____ speed film is currently the fastest intraoral film available F
the production of x-ray energy is dependent upon heating the anode, heating the tungsten filament, and small focal spot
What is the max permissible dose (MPD) in a calendar year to which radiation workers may be exposed... 5.0rems/year(.05 silverts/year)
operator of dental x-ray equipment are limited to ____ per 4/4 or(13 week period)... 1.25 rems
material that resist the penetration of x-ray the most... lead
what type of x-rays are best able to penetrate body tissue... hard rays of short wave length
Increasing kvp of dental x-ray machine produces... greater penetrating power
the purpose of a film badge (dosimeter) is to... measure amount of radiation received by operator and measure the type of radiation received by the operator
The purpose of filtering the x-ray beam is... to remove soft or low energy x-rays
the quantity or number of x-rays produced is determined by... milliamperage and exposure time
Most radiosensitive... bone marrow
collimation of the primary beam... reduces the size of the beam
When the target film distance is doubled, what happens to the intensity of the x-ray beam... the beam will be 1/4th as intense
John stands three feet away from the tube head when taking radiographs. Janelle stands six feet away. What is difference in the amount of radiation received by John... John receive four times the amount of radiation
In dental radiology, what is the purpose of the added aluminum filter... to remove the longer, less penetrating x-ray from primary beam
The Control switch should be located at least____ feet away from the tube head or should have a cord length sufficient... 6 feet
After the x-ray machine is turned off x-rays to bounce about the room... never they stop instantly
the recommended beam diameter is collimated to... 2.75 in
proper collimation of the primary beam will reduce... secondary radiation, and radiation recevied by patient
a collimator for dental x-ray machine is usually made of what material... lead
radiation injuries that do not appear in the person irradiated but occur in future generations are called... genetic effects
during pregnancy the greatest danger to the fetus is during... the first trimester
the factors that does not effect the amount of radiation injury... the type of film used
organs in the head and neck which are believed to be sensitive to the x-ray are... thyroid and lense of eye
what is most effective in reducing radiation exposure to the patient... fast film
the comulative effects of x-rays on living material means... each successive additional radiation exposure may an increasing damaging effect and damage from radiation is never completely repaired
Radiographs absorbing materials (protective barriers) known to be most effective are... Lead, concrete, or two 5 x 8" thickness of gypsum board
In normal dental radiographic procedures the hazard to the operator is from... Secondary or scattered radiation
The earliest visible sign to the skin from overexposure to radiation is... an erythema
The unit used to measure the dose equivalent of radiation exposure is termed... sievert (Sv) or Rem (roentgen equivalent in man)
monitoring devices might be worn by operators of x-ray equipment to measure radiation exposure... film badge or dosimeter
the most effective way to reduce gonadal radiation for a dental patient is to use... a leaded lap apron
least radiosensitive (least sensitive to x-rays)... muscle cells
________ is the damaging bio-chemical change in living tissues which results from exposure to x- radiation... ionization
all dental personnel should use the concept of______ for radiation protection... ALARA
A radiograph is too dark (overexposed). The cause could be... excessive milliamperage (too much mA) and excessive exposure (too much time)
the thinkness of the aluminum filter on an x-ray machine that operates above 70kVp is... 2.5mm thick
the differences between shades ranging from black to white in adjacent area of the radiograph is termed... contrast
dental radiographs legally belong to the dentist because the patient is paying for the diagnosis
position indicating devices (PID) that is least effective in reducing scatter radiation pointed plastic cone
a radiograph with low contrast may be produced by... increasing kVp
which of the following PID length would produce a radiograph with better detail, definition, and the least image magnification... 16 inches
which term describes the white areas on the processed radiograph... radiopaque (roentgen-opaque)
the yearly Maximum Permissible Dose (MPD) allowed pregnant radiation workers, the general public, and radiation workers under the age of 18 is... 0.1 R per year
who is the only person who should be in the path of the primary beam... the patient
Created by: Urania