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Chapter One

Linguistics

termdefinition
arbitrary There is no natural relationship between the way a word is pronounced (or signed) and its meaning.
Descriptive Grammar A linguist's description or model of the mental grammar, including the units,structures, and rules. An explicit statement of what speakers know about their language.
Grammar The mental representation of a speaker.
Lexicon A speaker's mental dictionary of morphems and words.
Morphology The study of the structure of words; the component of the grammar that includes the rules of word formations.
Phonology The sound system of a language; the component of a grammar that includes the inventory of sounds and rules for their combination and pronunciation; the study of sound systems of all languages.
Semantics The study of the linguistic meaning of morphems, words, phrases, and sentences. Assigning meaning to words.
Sign Languages The languages used by deaf people in which linguistic units such as morphemes and words as well as grammatical relations are formed by manual and other body movements.
Syntax The rules of sentence formation; the ecomponent of the mental grammar that represents speakers' knowledge of the structure of phrases and sentences.
Universal Grammar (UG) The innate principles and properties that pertain to the grammars of all human languages.
Sound Symbolism Words whose promumciation suggests the meaning.
Onomatopoiec Words that imitate the sounds associated with the objects or actions they refer to.
Linguistic Competence What we know about our language.
Linguistic Performance How we use our knowledge in actual speech production and comprehension.
Prescriptive Grammar When grammar is 'perscribed', rather than 'described'.
Prestige Dialect That variety of the language spoken by people in positions of power.
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis The claim that the structure of a language influences how its speakers perceive the world around them.
Linguistic Determinism Strongest form of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis. The language we speak determines how we perceive and think about the world (False).
Linguistic Relatavism Weaker form of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis. Different languages encode different catagories therefore speakers of different languages think about the world in different ways.
Created by: nipper
 

 



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