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SPPA chapter 12

A historical review

neurolinguistic how language is organized in the brain
1600 BC -Egyptians reported head injuries with loss of speech and memory -surgical papyrus: documentation of observations
Edwin Smith papyrus oldest Egyptian text on surgical trauma
First clinicians -mostly quacks -some used exorcism -some were scientist and researchers
First Clinicians Neurologists -Karl Wernicke -Paul Broca
Alexander Melville Bell (1819-1905) -developed methods to understand, analyze, and transmit speech -Visible Speech(1872):a visible code indicating articulator position in the production of speech sounds -mostly for hearing impaired
Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922) -some of Alexander Melville Bell -invented the telephone -studied elocution and speech in deaf people like father/grand -had deaf wife and mother in law -friend of helen keller
Hellen Adams Keller (1880-1968) -American author -lost hearing and vision -first deaf-blind person to graduate
European Clinicians -established speech clinicians -worked with communication disorders -"speech doctors" -mentors for American Clinicians
Self Taught Clinicians -mostly people who stuttered -Edgar Werner. The Voice Journal. addressed mostly stuttering and research findings
Special Interest Groups -By the early 1900's there were enough self-proclaimed "speech correctionists" -groups like ASHA
National Society for the Study and Correction of Speech Disorders -subgroup of the National Education Association(NEA) -School teachers -1928-1939
American Academy of Speech Correctionalists (AASC -1925 -physicians, scholars, public school administrators -15 women, 10 men -Committed to keeping it small and selective (no quacks) -high educational standards -disallowed most members of the National Society for the study and Correction os Speech..
University of Wisconsin -well represented in AASC with 5 members/25. -graduate program in speech correction 1914
Charles Van Riper -part of AASC -1925 -University of Western Michigan Kalamazoo -founding father of SLP -author of multiple professional introductory books
ASHA timeline -1927: AASC became the American Society of the Study of Disorders of speech(rename) -1934:American Speech correction Association -1927: American speech and hearing association -1979:American Speech-language hearing Association
Asha Certification -started in 1951 -masters requirement started in 1965 -need: grad degree, interest in SLP, 76 credits, 400 hr clinical practicum, pass Praxis, Supervised work
Audiology -began during WWII for soldiers -Army rehab centers -marriage of speech path and otology -Raymond Carhar(SLP)t and Norton Canfield(otologist)
Physics -which studies acoustic events as one manifestation of matter in motion -Audiology
Medicine -which is concerned with the human organism, sickness, and health. -the brain -head/neck anatomy
Psychology -which deals with responses of the organism to external stimuli
Education -which seeks to modify and guide the behavior of the organism
Sociology -which deals with the problem of fitting the individual into his culture.
Created by: o123runner321o



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