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Biomaterials 2ndhalf

UBSDM 2015 Biomaterials Second Half

QuestionAnswer
Acid-etching technique Process of roughening a solid surface by exposing it to an acid and thoroughly rinsing the residue to promote micromechanical bonding of an adhesive to the surface.
Adherend A material substrate that is bonded to another material by means of an adhesive.
Adhesion A molecular or atomic attraction between two contacting surfaces promoted by the interfacial force of attraction between the molecules or atoms of two different species; adhesion may occur as chemical adhesion, mechanical adhesion (structural interlocking
Adhesive Substance that promotes adhesion of one substance or material to another.
Adhesive bonding Process of joining two materials by means of an adhesive agent that solidifies during the bonding process.
Cohesion Force of molecular attraction between molecules or atoms of the same species.
Contact angle Angle of intersection between a liquid and a surface of a solid that is measured from the solid surface through the liquid to the liquid/vapor tangent line originating at the terminus of the liquid/solid interface; used as a measure of wettability, whereb
Diffusion coefficient Proportionality constant representing the amount of a substance diffusing through a unit area and a unit thickness under the influence of a unit concentration gradient at a given temperature.
Glass transition temperature Temperature at which a sharp increase in the thermal expansion coefficient occurs, indicating increased molecular mobility.
Heat of vaporization Thermal energy required to convert a solid to a vapor.
Latent heat of fusion Thermal energy required to convert a solid to a liquid.
Linear coefficient of expansion Relative linear change in length per unit of initial length during heating of a solid per °K within a specified temperature range.
Melting temperature (melting point) Equilibrium temperature at which heating of a pure metal, compound, or eutectic alloy produces a change from a solid to liquid.
Metallic bond Primary bond between metal atoms.
Micromechanical bonding Mechanical adhesion associated with bonding of an adhesive to a roughened adherend surface.
Self-diffusion Thermally driven transfer of an atom to an adjacent lattice site in a crystal composed of the same atomic species.
Smear layer Tenacious deposit of microscopic debris that covers enamel and dentin surfaces that have been prepared for a restoration.
Stress concentration State of elevated stress in a solid caused by surface or internal defects or by marked changes in contour.
Supercooled liquid A liquid that has been cooled at a sufficiently rapid rate to a point below the temperature at which an equilibrium phase change can occur.
Surface tension Interfacial tension, usually between a liquid and a solid surface, which occurs because of unbalanced intermolecular forces.
Wettability Relative affinity of a liquid for the surface of a solid.
Wetting Relative interfacial tension between a liquid and a solid substrate that results in a contact angle of less than 90°.
Wetting agent A surface-active substance that reduces the surface tension of a liquid to promote wetting or adhesion.
Vacancy Unoccupied atom lattice site in a crystalline solid.
van der Waals forces Short-range force of physical attraction that promotes adhesion between molecules of liquids or molecular crystals.
Adhesive Substance that promotes adhesion of one substance or material to another.
Adhesive bonding Process of joining two materials by means of an adhesive agent that solidifies during the bonding process.
Dentin bonding The process of bonding a resin to conditioned dentin.
Dentin bonding agent A thin layer of resin between conditioned dentin and the resin matrix of a composite.
Dentin conditioner An acidic agent that dissolves the inorganic structure in dentin, resulting in a collagen mesh that allows infiltration of an adhesive resin.
Hybrid layer An intermediate layer of resin, collagen, and dentin produced by acid etching of dentin and resin infiltration into the conditioned dentin.
Microleakage Flow of oral fluid and bacteria into the microscopic gap between a prepared tooth surface and a restorative material.
Preventive-resin restoration (PRR) A conservative, sealed, resin-based composite restoration, usually placed in a minimally prepared occlusal fissure area, with the sealant extending into contiguous uncut fissures.
Primer A hydrophilic, low-viscosity resin that promotes bonding to a substrate, such as dentin.
Resin tag Extension of resin that has penetrated into etched enamel or dentin.
Sandwich technique The process of restoring a prepared tooth by initially placing a layer of Type II glass ionomer cement for fluoride release followed by an overlayer of resin-based composite for strength and durability.
Smear layer Poorly adherent layer of ground dentin produced by cutting a dentin surface.
Alloy A crystalline substance with metallic properties that is composed of two or more chemical elements, at least one of which is a metal.
Dendritic microstructure A cast alloy microstructure consisting of highly elongated crystals with a branched morphology rather than equiaxed grains.
Equiaxed grain microstructure A cast alloy microstructure in which all of the grains have similar dimensions.
Grain A microscopic single crystal in the microstructure of a metallic material.
Heterogeneous nucleation Formation of solid nuclei on the mold walls or on particles within the molten metal.
Homogeneous nucleation Formation of solid nuclei that takes place at random locations within a supercooled molten metal in a clean, inert container.
Metal An element or alloy whose atomic structure readily loses electrons to form positively charged ions, and which exhibits metallic bonding (through a spatial extension of valence electrons), opacity, good light reflectance from a polished surface, and high e
Microstructure Structural appearance of a metal revealed by microscopic imaging of the chemically or electrolytically etched surface of a flat, polished specimen.
Nucleus Stable cluster of atoms of a new phase that forms within a parent phase, such as during the solidification of a metal.
Phase A homogeneous, physically distinct, and mechanically separable region of a metal microstructure.
Acid-base reaction Chemical reaction between a compound with replaceable hydrogen ions (acid) and a substance with replaceable hydroxide ions (base) that yields water and a salt; for aqueous cements, the liquid is the acid and the powder is the base.
Acidogenic Capable of producing an acid.
Anticariogenic Capable of inhibiting or preventing dental caries.
Atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) Clinical procedure performed without dental burs, air/water spray, or anesthesia that consists of manual excavation of carious tissue and restoration of the tooth cavity with a Type II fluoride-releasing cement.
Base Layer of insulating, sometimes medicated, cement, placed in the deep portion of the preparation to protect pulpal tissue from thermal and chemical injury.
Cavity liner Thin layer of cement, such as a calcium hydroxide suspension in an aqueous or resin carrier (after evaporation), used for protection of the pulp; certain glass ionomer cements that are used as an intermediate layer between tooth structure and composite re
Cement Substance that hardens to act as a base, liner, filling material, or adhesive to bind devices and prostheses to tooth structure or to each other.
Cermet A glass ionomer cement that has been reinforced with filler particles prepared by fusing silver particles to glass.
Compomer Resin-based composite material containing silicate glass filler particles and methacrylate and acidic monomers as matrices; also known as polyacid-modified resin-based composite; the term compomer is derived from the words composite and ionomer.
Craze Network of fine, interconnected cracks formed within the surface of aqueous-based cement as a result of rapid dehydration.
Demineralization Loss of mineral, typically calcium and phosphate ions, from tooth structure caused by exposure to organic acids produced by oral microorganisms.
Dew point Temperature at which moisture in air begins to condense (e.g., the temperature at which dew deposits on a cooled glass mixing slab).
Dual-cure Pertaining to setting of a material via two mechanisms; for glass ionomer cements, an acid-base reaction and a chemical- or light-activated polymerization process; for resin cement, a chemical- and a light-activated polymerization process.
Film thickness Height of the space between two surfaces that are separated by a cement (e.g., the distance between the tooth surface and a cemented prosthesis); a property of luting cements, this dimension is measured after pressure is applied between two flat surfaces
Flux Substance that reduces the fusing temperature of minerals during the melting of glass.
Glass Hard, brittle, amorphous noncrystalline material typically made by fusing silicates with various types of mineral oxides.
Glass ionomer cement (GIC) An aqueous-based material that hardens following an acid-base reaction between fluoroaluminosilicate glass powder and a polyacrylic acid solution; also referred to as conventional GIC.
Luting agent A viscous material placed between tooth structure and a prosthesis that hardens through chemical reactions to firmly attach the prosthesis to the tooth structure.
Maturation Process of hardening a cement matrix through hydration to achieve greater mechanical strength.
Metal-reinforced glass ionomer cement A modified glass ionomer cement that incorporates metal particles to improve mechanical properties.
"Permanent" restoration A long-lasting replacement or restoration for missing, damaged, or discolored teeth. Because of the tendency of any material to degrade or fracture over time, the term permanent does not signify an unlimited life expectancy.
Remineralization Process of restoring mineral content in demineralized tooth structure.
Resin-modified glass ionomer cement Modified glass ionomer cement that incorporates polymerizable monomer and a cross-linking agent; this type of cement has a longer working time and is less sensitive to water contamination than conventional glass ionomer cement; also called hybrid ionomer
Restoration Filling material or prosthesis used to restore or replace a tooth, a portion of a tooth, multiple teeth, or other oral tissues.
Sandwich technique Process of placing glass ionomer cement as an intermediate layer between the tooth structure and a resin-based composite; this restoration design benefits from the adhesive quality and fluoride-releasing ability of glass ionomer cement and the aesthetic q
Self-adhesive Ability of a material to adhere to tooth structure without the aid of a dentin-bonding agent or enamel-bonding agent.
Setting time The elapsed time from the start of mixing to the point at which the mixture reaches a desired hardness or consistency.
Silicate cement Restorative material, made from a matrix-forming mixture of a liquid (phosphoric acid) and a fluoride-containing silicate glass powder.
Silver alloy admix A type of metal-reinforced glass ionomer cement.
Fluorapatite Compound formed in the tooth enamel when a fluorine ion replaces a hydroxyl (OH) ion in hydroxyapatite.
Fluoride recharging Phenomenon in which glass ionomer cement absorbs fluoride from a solution with a high fluoride concentration.
Tri-cure Pertaining to the setting reaction of a glass ionomer cement via three mechanisms
Working time Elapsed time from the start of mixing to the point at which the consistency of a material is no longer suitable for its intended use.
Created by: speedy2782