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Human Anatomy

FLash Cards about the human anatomy

What is the level of organization in a human (multicellular organism)? Cells, tissues, organs, organ systems..
Define tissue. Group of similar cells that perform a single function.
Define organ. Group of tissues working together to perform a complex function.
Define organ system. Group of organs that perform closely related functions
The 11 organ systems work together to maintain ____________? _________Organ systems work together to maintain Hemeostasis.
What are the 11 organ systems of the human body? Nervous system, Integumentary system, Respiratory system, Digestive system, Excretory system, Skeletal system, Muscular system, Circulatory system, Endocrine system, Reproductive system, Lymphatic system.
Name the 4 types of human tissues. Epithelial tissue, Connective tissue, Muscle tissue, and Nervous tissue are the four types of human tissues.
___________ tissues cover the surface of the body and line internal organs. They also make up glands. Epithelial Tissue covers _______________ and lines ______________.
___________ tissues hold organs in place and bind body parts togehter. This tyoe of tissue also provides support and flexibility. Connective tissue ____________ body parts together and _____________ organs in place. It also provides _____________ and ______________.
_______________ tissues control movement. This type of tissue is also the most abundant of the tissues. Mulscle tissues are the ____________________ of the tissues. It also controls movement.
______________ tissues recieve messages (both external and internal), analyze data, directs a response, coordinates and regulates all body parts and functions. Nervous tissues do what?
The ___________ system controls and coordinates functions throughout the body and responds to external stimuli. Nervous System
Neurons conduct _______________. Impulses
Name the three types of neurons. Sensory neurons, motor neurons, and interneurons.
Name the two divisions of the nervouse system. The Central Nervous System (CNS) and The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS).
PNS stands for ____________. Peripheral Nervous System.
CNS stands for _____________. Central Nervous System.
The ___________ nervous system contains the brain and spinal chord and processes and analyzes information. CNS
The __________ nervous system contains the sensory and motor nerves. It also conducts impulses to and from the ____________ nervous system. PNS; Cns
Name the six regions of the brain. Cerebrum, Cerebellum, Puns, Medulla oblongota, Thalamus, and Hypothalamus.
Reflexes, blinking, sneezing, etc are coordinated in the ___________. Spinal Chord.
Name the two division of the PNS. Somatic Nervous System and Autonomic Nervous System
What nervous system regulates voluntary systems? Somatic Nervous System
What nervius system regulates involuntary activities? Autonomic Nervous System
Autonomic Nnervous system has two branches. Sypathetic and Parasypathetic branches
_____________ systewm supports the body, protects internal organs, provides for movement, stores mineral reserves, and is the site of blood cell production. The skeletal system does what 5 functions?
Names the two divisions of the skeletal system. Axial Skeleton and the Appendicular Skeleton.
The ___________ skeleton contains bones the support and protect organs of the head, neck, and trunk. Axial Skeleton.
The ____________ skeleton contains bones of the limbs, and hep/shoulder blades. Appendicular Skeleton.
Vertebral Column 7 cervica, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 1 sacval, and 1 coccyge.
Rib cage 12 ribs (7 true ribs and 5 false/ floating ribs) and 1 sternum.
Bones are a _________ of living cells and ____________ _______________ that are surrounded by ____________ of ___________________ ________________. Network; Protein fibers; deposits; calcium salts.
Name the 4 bone types. Long bones, short bones, Flat bones, and Irregular bones.
Define Perosteum. Tough outer layer of bone.
Define Harversian Canals. Tubes running through the compacts bone, blood vessles and nerves.
Define Bone Marrow. Cavities within bones.
Name and describe the two types of bone marrow. Yellow marrow, fat cells, and ted marrow, red and white blood cells.
Name and decribe the two types of bone structure. Compact bone, outer layer, and spongy bone, inner structure.
Define Cartilage. connective tissues in new borns that contain no blood vessels.
Define Osteoblasts. Osteoblasts build bone (ossification). They also secrete proteins necessary for bone development.
Define Osteoclasts. Osteoclasts remove damged bone tissue. Osteoclasts secrete enzymes that break down bone structure.
Define Osteocytes. maintain cellular activities of bones.
____________ are places where one bone attaches to another. Joints.
Name and describe the three types of joints. Immovable Joint- no movement (ex bones of the skull), Slightly Movable Joints- can move slightly (ex bones of the lower leg), and Freely Movable Joints- movement in one or more directions.
Name the four of the six types of synovial joints. Hinge joint, pivot joint, saddle joint, and ball and socket joint.
Descibe the movement and give an example of the hinge joint. Has a back and forth motion; ex: elbow joint.
Descibe the movement and give an example of the pivot joint. one bone rotates around another bone; ex: head to vetebral column joint.
Descibe the movement and give an example of the saddle joint. one bone slides in two directions; ex: thumb joint.
Descibe the movement and give an example of the ball and socket joint. has circular movement; hip joint.
Ligaments are ______________ to the _____________ of the bones and ________________ them together. attached; membranes; hold.
Synovial fluid is a _______ of fluid, which aids in _________________ the bone. capsul; lubricating.
Bursa are _______ of fluids which _________ friction. sacs; reduce.
Name the three types of muscle tissues. Skeletal muscle tissue, smooth muscle tissue, and cardiac muscle tissue.
_____________ muscle tissues consist of blood vessels, nerves and many nuclei. This muscle tissue also provides for voluntary movement Skeletal.
_______________ muscle tissues consists of one nucleus. It is found in the degestive tract, stomach, and intestines. It also performs involuntare actions. Smooth.
_____________ muscle tissues contain striations and are under control of the CNS. This muscle tissue is found in the heart. Cardiac.
Define myofibers. muscle cells.
Myofibers are composed of _______________. Myofibril.
Each myofibril has _______________. Filaments.
Striated appearance of muscle cells due to ___________ _______________ and _________________ filaments. alternating thin; thick.
Define Myosine. thick muscle filaments.
Define Actin. Thin muscle filaments.
Define Sacromeres. Units that fibers are arranged in.
Describe the sliding filament theory of contraction. Muscle contraction is the movement of actin (thin filaments) sliding past myosin (thick filaments).
The energy for muscle contraction is supplied by ______. ATP.
_____________ junction is the point of contact between a motor neuron and a skeletal muscle. Neuromuscular junction is the point of contact between a ___________________ _______________________ and a _______________ ___________________.
A motor neuron releases a _______ caled acetylcholine. neurotransmitter.
Define Acetylcholine. neurotransmitter released from a motor neuron.
It diffuses and produces an impulse. Ca2+ is relesed from ______________ _______________________ resulting in the filaments __________________. Sarcoplasmic reticulum; contracting
Muscle cells remain ___________________ until the release of ______________ stops. Contracted; acetylcholine.
Cell pumps ________________ back in storage, cross bridge stops and ______________ ends. Calcium; contraction.
The circulatory/cardiovascular system consists of the _______________, ______________________ ________________ and the __________ that flows through it. heart; blood vessels; blood.
The main function of the circulatory system is _______________________. Transpertation.
The heart pumps how much blood per minute. 5 liters
Name the three types of blood vessels. Ateries, Capillaries, and Veins.
_______________ are blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart. Arteries.
_____________ are blood vessels Veins.
_______________ blood vessels have thick walls. Arteries.
______________ blood vessels have thin walls Veins.
____________ blood vessels exchange oxygen, nutrients, and waste. Capillaries.
______________ blood vessels contain valves. Veins.
Inferior and Superior Vena Cave poor oxygen blood from body to heart.
Pulmanary arterias Poor oxygen blood from heart to lungs.
Aorta Rich oxygen blood ffrom heart to body.
Pulmanary Veins. Rich oxygen blood from the lungs to the heart.
Desribe the passage of blood through the heart. blood flows from the body into the Superior and Inferer Vena Cava. From their it flows into the RIght Atrium, then the Right Ventrical, then the pulmanary trunk/arteries, then the lungs where it becomes oxygen rich, then the pulmanary veian, left atruim,
Left ventrical, Aorta and then to the body. (blank)
Each contraction begins in a small group of cardiac muscle cells located in the _____________ _____________________. RIght Atrium.
These cells set the pace for the heart as a whole, they are called ________. Pacemaker.
When the heart contracts it produces a fluid pressur in the arteries. This pressure is kwnow as ____________ ___________________. (blank)
Sphygmomanometer. Device used to take blood pressure.
Systole. Heart muscle contraction.
Diastloe. Heart muscle relazation.
List some cardiovascular disorders. Arhweosclerosis-plaque, Hypertension, Stroke, Hert attack.
Define Respiration. process by which oxygen and carvon dioxide are exchanged between cells.
Air enters, fill the lungs- ______________. Gas exchange.
Name the parts of the upper respitory tract. Nasal Cavitis, Pharynx, Larynx.
Name the parts of the lower respitory tract. Trachea, Bronchial Tree, Lungs.
What keaps the lungs healthy and clean? Hair lining or cilia, and mucus.
What contains the vocal cords and is the sight of sound production? Larynx.
What carries air from the larynx to the bronchi. (wind pipe) Trachea.
Air and food passage, contains the tonsils, epiglottis (covers the trachea). Pharynx.
Bronchi carries air fron the _____________ to the _____________. trachea;lungs.
Bronchioles carry air to _______________. Alveoli.
The right lung has how many lobes? 3
The left lung has how many lobes? 2
Alveol (gas exchange) 350 million
What does oxygen dissolve on? The inner surface of the alveoli.
Oxygen diffuses across the __________ into the blood. capilaries.
Carbon dioxide diffuses in what direction. The opposite.
Lung remove what fraction of oxygen in the air that is inhaled and increase the caron dioxide the is exhaled. one third.
Define Homeoglobin. oxygen carrying protein that aids in 70% of oxygen transportation.
Movement of air in and out of lthe ungs. Breathing.
How many muscles are connected to the lungs? None.
Lungs are sealed in two sacs called __________ ___________________. Pleural membrane.
______________ contracts and expands in breathing. Diaphragm.
Created by: dml4001