Busy. Please wait.
Log in with Clever

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
Sign up using Clever

Username is available taken
show password

Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
Your email address is only used to allow you to reset your password. See our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Didn't know it?
click below
Knew it?
click below
Don't Know
Remaining cards (0)
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Ch 8 Vocabulary

AP Psychology Learning Vocabulary

learning a relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience
associative learning learning that certain events occur together; the events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (as in operant conditioning)
classical conditioning a type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli; a neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus
behaviorism the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes; most research psychologists today agree with (1) and not with (2)
unconditioned response (UCR) in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimuli (UCS), such as salivation when food is in the mouth
unconditioned stimulus (UCS) in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally-naturally and automatically-triggers a response
conditioned response (CR) in classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus (CS)
conditioned stimulus (CS) in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS), comes to trigger a conditioned response
acquisition the initial stage in classical conditioning; the phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response; in operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response
extinction the diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS); occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced
spontaneous recovery the reappearance, after a rest period, of an extinguished conditioned response
generalization the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses
discrimination in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguished between a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus
operant conditioning a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher
respondent behavior behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus; Skinner's term for behavior learned through classical conditioning
operant behavior behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences
law of effect Thorndike's principle that behaviors followers by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
operant chamber (Skinner box) a chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer, with attached devices to record the animal's rate of bar pressing or key pecking; used in operant conditioning research
shaping an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of a desired goal
imprinting the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life
reinforcer in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
primary reinforcer an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need
conditioned reinforcer a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer; also known as secondary reinforcer
continuous reinforcement reinforcing that desired response every time it occurs
partial reinforcement reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement
fixed-ratio schedule in operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses
variable-ratio schedule in operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses
fixed-interval schedule in operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces only after a specified time has elapsed
variable-interval schedule in operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed
punishment an event that decreases the behavior that it follows
cognitive maps a mental representative of the layout of one's environment; for example, after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it
latent learning learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
over-justification effect the effect of promising a reward for doing what one already likes to do; the person may now see the reward, rather than intrinsic interest, as the motivation for performing the task
intrinsic motivation a desire to perform a behavior for its own sake and to be effective
extrinsic motivation a desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment
observational learning learning by observing others
modeling the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
mirror neurons frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so; the brain's mirroring of another's action may enable imitation, language learning, and empathy
pro-social behavior positive , constructive, helpful behavior; the opposite of antisocial behavior
Created by: lthom
Popular Psychology sets




Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!
"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards