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Biology 11 Ch 4.2

Genetic Processes: 4.2 Sexual Reproduction

asexual reproduction reproduction that requires only one parent and produces genetically identical offspring
sexual reproduction reproduction that requires two parents and produces genetically distinct offspring
gamete a male or female reproductive cell
zygote a cell formed by the fusion of two gametes
fertilization in humans, the joining of male and female haploid gametes
haploid a cell that contains half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell
diploid a cell that contains pairs of homologous chromosomes
meiosis the cellular process that produces cells containing half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell
synapsis the aligning of homologous chromosomes during prophase I in meiosis I
spermatogenesis the process of producing male gametes (sperm) in mammals
oogenesis the process of producing female gametes (eggs) in mammals
crossing over the exchange of chromosomal segments between a pair of homologous chromosomes
non-disjunction the failure of homologous chromosome pairs or sister chromatids to separate during meiosis
monosomy the loss of a chromosome as a result of non-disjunction
trisomy the gain of an extra chromosome as a result of non-disjunction
Created by: marsenault