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Microbiology

Microbiology note cards

Microbiolgy stack 1Microbiolgy Answers to stack 1
What RNA Sequence is one of three possible termination codons? UGA
What is the study of heritity, variation, and expression of genes? genetics
The term used for how genes are passed from one generation to the next is called what? heredity
What is the collection of all the genes in a cell called? genome
What is a large circlular molecule of several million base pairs of DNA that contains cellular genes called? chromosome
Eukaryotes are __________; meaning they have 2 copies of each chromosome. diploid
Prokaryotes are __________; meaning they containe 1 copy of each chromosome. haploid
How many genes are in an average bacterium? 5000
How many genes are in a human cell? 50000
A bacterium lacking mutations and had a capsule is called what? a wild-type bacterium
What type of mutations usually destroy the function of the resulting protiens? Insertions and deletions
What rid the cell of unwanted protiens? protease
What type of systems have fine control over how much expression occurs? Repressible Systems
What turn on expression while repressible systems turn them off? Inducible Systems
What is associated with repressible operons where the end product of the operon pathway makes a complex with the aporepressor to inhibit transcription? Feedback inhibition
When do bacteria usually regulate gene expression? during transcription
The overall process of changing the normal genetic character of an individual or providing new gene products is called what? genetic engineering
When a virus carries foreign DNA we use the term_________. transfect
A _______ _______ is a virus used in gene therapy to deliver a gene with proper activity to host cells that need the gene. viral vector
________ _______ _______ is a series of tools, enzymes, and bacterial hosts that allow researchers to isolate and ID the mutant adenine deaminase gene. Recombinant DNA technology
Some bacteria require that their carbon source already be in organic form, these are called what? Heterotrophs
Which gene transfer mechanism requires two cells, a sex pilus and contact between the cells? Conjugation
DNase affects which type of gene transfer? Transformation
What must an F-factor do to become an Hfr (high frequency of recombination)? Integrate itself into the donor bacterial chromosome
What type of gene transfer is mediated by a bacteriophage? Transduction
What type of gene transfer transports naked DNA through a cell membrane? Transformation
Which type of gene transfer does a sex pilus form a bridge between 2 bacteria? Conjugation
What is the name of the test used to ID which chemicals cause mutation? AMES test
When a system is mutationally always turned on and cannot be turned off, it is said to be what? constitutive
Which mutant lacks the ability to be induced even when the depressor is present? regulatory mutant
_______ __________ are gene sequences that code for actual protiens. Structural genes
Cells that carry mutations that change the phenotypes are called what? auxotrophs
What term is used when we don't know the exact gene that has mutated? phenotype
__________ are only used when we know the exact gene that is mutated. genotype
Mutations caused by man-made mutagens are called what? induced mutations
Mutations that occur by mistakes in DNA synthesis or by exposure to UV rays are called what? Spontaneous Mutations
Chemicals and other factors not normally found in nature that can alter the DNA sequence are termed what? mutagens
What causes spontaneous genetic changes? a mutation
What type of mutation eliminates the remainder of the protien? nonsense mutations
The treatment of disease by introducing genes into a human or other organism is called what? gene therapy
DNA Polymerase have a very low error rate (about one in 10 to the tenth power) due to its ability to do what? Proofread
DNA replication is perfomed by ________________, which is an enzyme that links the subunits of DNA, nucleotides, together to form the large structure. DNA polymerase
The enzymatic process of making another copy, or duplicate, is called what? Replication
DNA that will base pair with another DNA molecule because it has A in place of every T, C in place of every G of the other molecule is called what? Complementary DNA
Who confirmed that DNA, rather than protien, is the genetic material? Hershey and Chase
Oswald Avery showed that a bacterial substance that caused transformation is ___________ sensitive. DNase
What is the name of the process (Fredrick Griffith named this process) which showed that genes can functionally affect the character of cells, and that genes can be transferred frome one cell to another? Transforming Principle
A bacterium that has a defective gene is called a what? Mutant
Glycolysis yields ______ ATP's, while the Krebs Cycle coupled with electron transport yields _______ ATP's. 2 and 30
This method counts the number of living and nonliving cells and tells us how many cells were produced; what is this method called? Turbidemetrically
The bacteria that can use carbon dioxide from the air as a source of carbon are called what? Autotrophs
Pyruvate is further taken apart in the ____ _____, which uses oxygen to degrade the carbon completely to CO2, water, ATP and NRG containing electrons that are passed to the electron transport chain. Krebs Cycle
This scientist is known for using antiseptics and disinfectants during surgery and on wounds. Sir Joseph Lister
In glycolysis the 6-carbon sugar is converted into _______ three-carbon acids, called __________, with the concomitant production of _____ ATP moleculse. two, pyruvic acid, two
Liquid growth media are called what? broths
What is widely employed by various industries and use microbes to solve biological problems; to produce large quantities of useful items and to degrade toxic materials called? Biotechnology
Bacteria that have a mutation so that it can no longer make a given vitamin are called what? auxotrophs
Water is ________ because there is a positive charge at one end and a negative charge at the other. Polar
Pressure due to H2O trying to reduce the chemical gradient is called what? osmotic pressure
The average bacteria are how many microns in size? 1-4 microns
A string of 3-letter codons, usually 300-1,000 base pairs long is called what? a gene
Bacterial cells grow by dividing and forming 2 progeny cells that are equal to the original cell, what is this process called? cell division and/or binary fission
What type of microscopy is described as, the scattered electrons leave dark areas that reflect the viral outline on the viewing screen? Transmission electron microscopy
When we obtain a clinical specimin, place it on human cells in a tissue culture and watch for changes in cells, we call this what? the cytopathic effect
Name the bacteria that were once considered aglae, they confer a bad taste to drinking water. cyanobacteria
What is the term used for organisms incapable of growing outside of a host cell? obligate intracellular parasites
These typically comprise 100-600 amino acid residues. protiens
What are the organisms called that have no nucleus? Prokaryotes
A ________ is a nutritious extract or mixture of materials that will support the growth of microbes. A medium
Where are microbes found? Everywhere except on items that are rendered sterile.
In RNA, Thymidine is replaced by what? Uridine
This scientist is known for promoting handwashing. Ignaz Semmelweis
In the second phase, the cells start to multiply by doubling every, perhaps 30minutes. This phase is called what? Appx. how long does this phase last? The log phase and lasts a few hours depending on nutritional availability
List 5 microbes that are medically relevant. Prions, viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites
What insect is know for transmitting trench fever, epidemic typhus, and relapsing fever? Head and body lice (pediculus humanus)
When bacteria are picked from a petri dish and placed into fresh broth, they do not multiply at first. This phase is called what? How long (appx) does this phase last? The lag phase, lasts about 30-60 minutes
What type of medium is generally used for the isolation of human pathogens from body sites such as the throat? Blood agar
________ supply an excess of OH- ions, making the solution ________. Bases, alkaline
This scientist is known for disproving spontaneous generation, he also made vaccines for 2 diseases, what are these vaccines and the name of the scientist? rabies and anthrax, Louis Pasteur
Fleas are known to transmit what two diseases? Yersinia pestis and a rickettsia form of typhus
Spongeform encephalopathy in humans is called what? It is also widely know as bovine spongiform encephalopathy which is also termed __________. Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease and Mad Cow Disease
DNA stands for _____________ and is __________stranded deoxyribonucleic acid, double
These are a type of lipid that are useful targets for abx treatment of fungi because fungal and animal lipds vary. Sterols
A pH of 7 would be considered what? Neutral
This scientist discovered agents that destroy bacteria. What are these agents, and what is the scientists name? lysozyme and PCN, Alexander Fleming
There are ________ different amino acids linked together in cell-like beads on a string. 20
Name the 2 bacteral domains. Archea and bacteria
The tick, Ixodes scapularis transmits the bacterial spirochete called what? Borrelia burgdorferi (lyme disease)
What is the name of the wather mold that causes potato blight, which destroyed the potato crops in Ireland for several years in the 1840s? Phytophthora infestans
This scientist developed 4 requirements to establish an organism as cause of a disease and what is the name of this process? Robert Koch, Koch postulates
Some bacteria can use salts found in rock as an energy source and are thus capable of What? Chemosynthetic Metabolism
__________ bacteria capture energy from light into chlorophyll-like chemicals. photosynthetic
_____________ is a sugar phosphate repeating structure that is usually huge (usually millions of uints long). nucleic acid
_______________ is any product produced from catabolism except CO2 and H2O Fermentation
Media in which we do not know the exact chemical composition, such as brain-heart infusion broth are called what? nonsynthetic or complex media
When microscopically observable dark areas of virus particles accumulate, the accumulations are called what? Inclusion Bodies
What is the attachment process called when the host cell receptor and virion attachment components are often related to a lock and key mechanism in which the key can only recognize the cell types that carry the correct lock? adsorption
When sugars are polymerized into long chains, like beads on a string, they are called what? A polysaccharide
Name the 2 complimentary pairs in DNA----- Adenind (A) to Thymidine (T) and Cytosine (C) to Guanine (G)
Oil had no charge differential and this is called what? non polar
What does BHI stand for when making mediums? Brain-Heart infusion broth
When bacteria double every constant period of time it is called what? exponential growth
When we add additional nutrients to media it is called a what? An enriched medium.
Bacteria that absolutly need oxygen to grow are called what? Obligate aerobes
A rod shaped cell is called a what? Bacillus
These are the workers of the cell. They cause the breakdown of complete foods into smaller more useful molecules. What are they? Enzymes
Name the seven levels of taxa---- Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species
What type of microscopy has light going directly through the specimine be blocked out and light is reflected off the bacteria? Dark field microscopy
What is the most common cause of a mite rash usually in the genital area, between fingers and under breasts? Sarcoptes scabiei
The nomenclature (or naming) and classifying of microbes (or any other living thing) is called what? Taxonomy
What is a physician induced disease called? Iatrogenic disease
Standard paseurization is how many minutes or seconds and how many degrees celcius? 30 minutes 63 degrees C
Flash pasteurization is how many min/sec and how many degrees celcius? 15 seconds and 71.5 degrees C
Ultrapasteurization is how many secs/min and how many degrees celcius? 3 seconds and 82 degrees C.
What is the name of the process that heats food (such as milk) to a high enough temp. to kill most vegatative cells? Pasteurization
Which disinfectant phenol coefficient would indicate a poor disinfectant? 0.1 or 10 0.1
The effectiveness of a new disinfectant is measured against the effectiveness of phenol, this is called what? The Phenol Coefficient
What substance is considered the gold standard for disinfectants? Phenol
Which is the more effective alcoholic disinfectant? Pure alcohol or 70/30 alcohol solution? The 70/30 solution
Name the 3 halide disinfectant chemicals? Iodine, chlorine, bromine
Name 4 chemical disinfectants that kill------ aldehydes, alcohols, iodides, chlorine bleaches
Disinfectants that inhibit growth but do not kill are termed what? static (bacteriostatic or fungistatic)
Disinfectants that show preferential killing are called what? Cides (bacteriocides or fungiciedes)
What term is used to describe the harsher chemicals that are used on inanimate objects? Disinfectants
Whatis the term used for chemicals that can be used on human flesh? antiseptics
What types of things would we use ultrafiltration for? to sterilize enzymes, gases and vaccinations
Why would a chemiclave be used vs. an autoclave? Used for materials that we don't want to get wet
What chemical is used in a chemiclave? Ethylene oxide gas
What are the standard autoclave conditions? Temp 121 degrees Celcius, pressure 15 lbs, time 15 minutes
What is the name of the device that uses chemicals for sterilization? Chemiclave
What is the name of the device that uses steam for sterilization? Autoclave
What process reduces the number of viable living organisms on an object? Disinfection
What term is used for the process that kills all life on an object? Sterilization
What term is used when an object is treated to reduce microbes to a safe level? Sanitized
What is working with out contamination called? Aseptic
Bacteria that only grow in absence of oxygen are called what? anaerobes
Molecules in solution are always bouncing around off one another in a process called what? Brownian motion
What type of microscopy is described as: the scattered electrons are detected and the object's surface is reconstructed by computer technology? Scanning Electron Microscopy
A pH of 1 would be considered a(n) ____________. Acid
The tick, Dermacentor andersoni, transmits which disease? Rickettsia rickettsii (Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever)
What is the scientist's name that made the first microscope? Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
When other viruses cause cells to fuse together into giant cells this is called what? syncytia formations
What do we call viruses that carry out transcription in reverse? retroviruses
An organism that is the same species but differs immunologically is referred to as what? Serovars
Media that consist of completely known chemicals are called what? Synthetic or Defined media
An organism that is the same species but differs biologically (they vary somewhat in biological properties) is called what? A Biovar
Thousands of genes make up a single piece of double stranded DNA called a what? Chromosome
What is the defining characteristic of a eukaryote? The DNA containing Nuclei
Bacteria with three layered cell walls are called what? Gram-Negative
Bacteria with two layered cell envelopes are called what? Gram-Positive
The naming system for organisms always includes the organism's genus and species and is referred to as what? The binomial system
Prokaryote ribosomes are what logarithmic size? 30s+50S equalling 70S
What logarithmic size are eukaryotes? 40S+60S equalling 80S
What are enzymes called that perform translation? Ribosomes
Where does bacterial replication take place? In the Cytoplasm
A comma shaped cell is called what? A Vibrio
A helical shaped cell is called what? A Spirochete
The step in molecular biology that follows DNA replication is called what? Transcription
The presence of ample amino acid (such as serine) signals the cell to save energy by not synthesizing more. This process is called what? Feedback inhibition
The enzyme responsible for transcription is called what? RNA polymerase
An __________ is two or more genes in a bacterial chromosome that are transcribed into one mRNA molecule; eukaryotic cells do not have these. An Operon
A template for the coded genetic information in DNA to be translated into protien is called what? mRNA
What are the enzymes called that carry out the process of translation? Ribosomes
A ___________ is a nucleotide triplet that codes for a specific amino acid. Codon
This is a process of rRNA's translating the mRNA codons into protiens by polymerizing the correct amino acids in the correct order, what is this process called? Translation
This is usually found on the outer membrane of a cell which helps in keeping items in or out of a cell. Lipids
This scientist performed the world's first vaccination. Who is he, and what disease was the vaccine for? Edward Jenner, small pox
Bacteria that grow in the presence of oxygen are called what? aerobes
A pH of 9 would be considered what? Alkaline
Enzymatic processes generally occur more rapidly at ___________ temps. Higher
_________ supply an excess of H+ ions that make the water solution ___________. Acids, acidic
A spherical cell is called what? Coccus
The last phase is called the ______ ______ or ________ _________ because the cells are not receiving sufficient energy or nutrients to maintain viability. Decline phase or Death phase
What are the organisms that have a nucleus called? Eukaryotes
What technique should we use to prevent contamination? Aseptic
What is the belief that microbes will grow in humans and are the cause of disease that spread from person to person and town to town called? The Germ Theory of Disease
Naming of organisms involves these five characteristics: Size, shape, color, body parts, growth habitat
The third phase in which cells maintain cell numbers but are not able to produce new cells, or they are dying and producing new cells at about the same rate. What is this phase called and about how long can it last? Stationary phase, can last minutes to days
This discipline studies a variety of organisms that usually require a microscope to be seen. microbiology
What is often added to organisms to improve contrast and our ability to recognize microbes more readily? Stain or dyes
An organism that has a niche in the mouth, may easily be transferred to the hands by placing them fingers in the mouth, this organism is _____ because the skin of the fingers is not its niche. Transient
What type of organism is one that is at its normal site of growth, or its niche? resident organism
What type of bacteria are resistant to acid? aciduric
Created by: nursemom1977