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Molecular Genetics

QuestionAnswer
What does DNA stand for? Deoxyribonucleic Acid
What is the job of DNA? To store the genetic information that is necessary for an organism to live and function.
What is DNA and RNA? A nucleic acid.
What is DNA located on? The chromosomes.
What do the nucleotides of DNA consist of? A five carbon sugar (deoxyribose), a nitrogen base, and a phosphate group.
What are the segments of DNA that are located on chromosomes that carry information for certain traits called? Genes.
What is the shape of DNA? A double helix.
How many strands does DNA have? Two.
How many types of nitrogen bases does DNA have? Four.
What are the names of the nitrogen bases of DNA? Adenosine, cytosine, guanime, and thymine.
How do nitrogen bases pair? A-T C-G.
Each three bases on DNA are known as a ____. Codon.
What kind of bonds do nitrogen bases on DNA have? Hydrogen bonds.
When DNA copies itself it goes through a process known as ___ _____. DNA Replication.
In order to replicate the two DNA strands have to ____. Separate.
The nitrogen bases on DNA only pair with their ______ bases. Complementary.
What does RNA stand for? Ribonucleic acid.
What is the job of RNA? To carry the information to make proteins.
What are the differences between DNA and RNA? DNA has two strands and RNA has only one strand; RNA replaces thymine with uracil; and RNA has the sugar ribose instead of deoxyribose.
What are the three main types of RNA? Messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), and ribosomal RNA (rRNA).
What is transcription? The synthesis or making of messenger RNA.
Where does transcription take place? Nucleus.
What is translation? The decoding of mRNA to make a protein.
Where does translation take place? Cytoplasm.
Proteins are made of long chains of amino acids called ____. Polypeptides.