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1.catabolic pathways those that break down organic molecules for energy
2.anabolic pathways those that build up organic molecules to store energy for later use.
3.cellular respiration chemical pathway in which organic molecules are broken down to release energy in a quickly usable form (ATP)
4.anaerobic respiration and fermentation. Anaerobic pathways do not use oxygen as they perform respiration
5.Aerobic Respiration C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O → 6CO2 + 12H2O + energy (ATP)
6.Photosynthesis 6CO2 + 12H2O + energy (light) → C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O
7.Glycolysis is the first stage of aerobic respiration, but it is also a part of all other known cellular respiration pathways
8.The formation of acetyl CoA involves the conversion of each pyruvate into acetyl-CoA, releasing one CO2 for each pyruvate reactant
9.The citric acid cycle The citric acid cycle oxidizes the remaining carbon atoms of each acetyl-CoA to CO2
10.electron transport chain (ETC) In the final stage, oxidative phosphorylation, NADH and FADH2 deliver their energy-rich electrons into the electron transport chain (ETC)
11.Anaerobic respiration a pathway present in some prokaryotes, is remarkably similar to aerobic respiration
12.fermentation Another alternative to aerobic respiration
13.Photosynthesis Generally speaking, photosynthesis is the opposite of respiration
14.light-dependent reactions The light-dependent reactions occur within the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts
15.carbon fixation reactions The carbon fixation reactions, also called the Calvin cycle, use the energy in ATP and NADPH to synthesize glucose
16.Calvin cycle The carbon fixation reactions, also called the Calvin cycle, use the energy in ATP and NADPH to synthesize glucose
17.rubisco An enzyme called RuBP carboxylic/oxygenate, or Rubicon, incorporates CO2 into ribosomes bis phosphate (RuBP).
18.photorespiration Believed to be an evolutionary leftover, photorespiration sometimes reduces the efficiency of photosynthesis.
19.During carbon fixation, the CO2 is reduced by the NADPH molecules and the energy for these endergonic (energy-requiring) reactions is provided by ATP
20.In plants, the glucose molecules are often combined into a polymeric form called starch for longer-term storage.
21.The rubisco enzyme will combine O2 (instead of CO2) with RuBP when CO2 levels become particularly low.
22.C4 and CAM plants are species that have evolved to avoid photorespiration in environments that are especially dry and hot (where photorespiration is more likely to be a problem).
23.In fermentation, the reactions of glycolysis still occur, making 2 ATPs by substrate-level phosphorylation
24.A transmembrane enzyme called ATP synthase couples the energy provided by the movement of these protons down their electrochemical gradient to synthesize ATP
25.In photophosphorylation, energy-rich electrons are passed through a chain of electron carriers which causes protons to be pumped into the interior of the thlakoid, This proton gradient is used by an ATP synthase to make ATP.
Created by: Rodney77