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Molecular Genetics

QuestionAnswer
What sets of molecules bond together to form a nucleotide? Deoxyribose, a nitrogen base, a phosphate group
What errors that are made during protein synthesis may result? Mutations.
What is done during the cell cycle? DNA is replicated before mitosis begins
What is it called when an incorrect copy is made in DNA replication? A mutation
What does the sequence of nucleotides provide coding for? Proteins
What is the process called when two identical DNA strands form? Replication
What molecule is the subunit of DNA that links together to form strands of DNA? A nu
What form of RNA is responsible for carrying a formed amino acid to the protein assembly site during translation? Transfer RNA
The product of DNA in transcription is best described as? An RNA molecule
Describe the difference of shapes of DNA and RNA. DNA is a double helix; RNA is a single helix.
What is a major difference between DNA replication and DNA transcription? RNA molecules produced by transcription are much shorter in length than DNA molecules produced by replication.
What may be a benefit of the overproduction of proteins? Injury repair may occur more quickly.
When a molecule of double-stranded DNA undergoes replication, what does it result in? Two double-stranded DNA molecules, each composed of one new and one old strand.
What is the process called when codons in mRNA molecules specify the sequence of amino acids in polypeptide chains? Translation
Why is it necessary for DNA strands to be held together with relatively weak hydrogen bonds? So that the DNA strands can separate easily during replication.
What is the product of RNA translation? A protein
What is the role of DNA in heredity? The DNA that makes up genes must be capable of storing, copying, and passing on the genetic information in a cell.
What are the chemical parts of DNA? DNA is a nucleic acid made up of nucleotides joined into long strands or chains by covalent bonds.
What does the double-helix tell us about DNA? The double-helix model explains Chargaff's rule of base pairing and how the two strands of DNA are held together.
The two "backbones" of DNA molecule consist of Phosphates and sugars
What two scientists determined the double-helix shape of DNA? James Watson and Francis Crick
What are the tips of chromosomes called? Telomeres
What is a bacteriophage? A kind of virus that infects bacteria
What is transformation? the process in which one strain of bacteria is changed by gene or genes from another strain of bacteria.
Created by: 1342920