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Neuro study

Test 3

QuestionAnswer
What is the difference between the corticobulbar pathway and the corticospinal pathway? Corticobulbar pathway crosses over at brainstem Corticospinal pathway crosses over at medulla
Where are the nuerons and synapses for controlling the muscle of the faces cortex, brainstem, neuromuscular junction
What does the Corticospinal pathway control Spinal nerves/muscles
What does the corticobulbar pathway control? Cranial nerves/muscles
What are 3 consequences of damage to the corticobulbar pathway? Tongue protrusion with damage to hypoglosseal (XII) nerve Voice change with paralyzed vocal folds with damage to Vagus (X) nerve Asymetrical smile due to damage of facial (VII) nerve
What is the structural difference between pyramidal and extrapyramidal pathways? Pyramidal=direct pathway extrapyramidal = indirect pathway
What purpose does the pyramidal pathway serve? voluntary movements
What purpose does the extrapyramidal pathway serve? involuntary movements
What are 4 extrapyramidal pathways? 1)Tectospinal tract 2)Rubrospinal tract 3)Vestibulospinal tract 4)Reticulospinal tract
Where does the Tectospinal tract synapse in the brainstem? tectum (inferior & superior colliculi)
Where does the Rubrospinal tract synapse in the brainstem? Red nucleus
Where does the vestibulospinal tract synapse in the brainstem? Cranial Nerve 8
Where does the reticulospinal tract synapse in the brainstem? reticular formation
What is the difference between a motor unit and a neuromuscular junction? motor unit = a single Alpha neuron and all corresponding muscle fibers it innervates Neuromuscular junction = synapse of the axon terminal of motor neuron and the motor end plate
How many muscle fibers can a neuron control depends on the # of Axon collaterals
How is it possible to increase or decrease the force of a movement? Recruit more motor units to the task
What are the 3 main purposes of the cerebellum 1) monitors all cortical motor output to muscles 2) Matches motor and sensory commands 3) Sends a corrective input
Which lobes and deep nuclei of the cerebellum are most involved in speech? posterior lobe dentate nucleus
What are 3 common symptoms of cerebellar damage? Ipsilateral symptoms Motor control loss with out sensory loss or paralysis Gradual recovery
What are 3 common causes of cerebellar damage? 1) stroke 2) chronic alcoholism 3) progressive hereditary neurological disease
What is ataxia? segmentation/discoordination of movement
What is dysdiadochokinesia inability to perform rapid, alternating movements
What is Dysarthria Slow slurred disjointed speech
What is Dysmetria? Missing a target by either over or undershooting
Action or Intention Tremor Repetitive wavering during action - not during rest
Hypotonia Slack muscle tone
Rebounding lack of needed inhibition for sudden movement changes
Disequalibrium walking as if drunk, not on balance
The basal ganglia is active most often in early or late learning? Late learning
The cerebellum is active most often in early or late learning> Early learning
Does the basal ganglia send messages directly to the cortex? NO
What type of pathway is the basal ganglia Indirect
Where does the pathway for the basal ganglia go before the cortex> The talamus
Does the basal ganglia send excitatory or inhibitory messages to the thalamus? Inhibitory
Within the vetrolateral thalamus, messages from the basal ganglia meet up with messages from what other major structure involved with movement control? Cerebellum
Dyskinesia Delay or inability to initiate a movement
Athetosis Slow involuntary twisting of axial and speech muscles (writhing)
Ballism Wild swinging movements of the arms and legs
Chorea Rythmic and quick involuntary movements in distal muschles and face, tongue and pharynx (non-patterned)
Tremor rythmic shakiness
Bradykinesia Slow movements
Hypokinesia Movements with limited range
What do nociceptors sense? Pain/tissue destruction
What do Ruffini receptors sense? diffuse touch/pressure
What do Pasiniam corpuscles sense? discriminative touch/vibration
What do Merkel Receptors sense? Diffuse touch/pressure
What do free nerve endings sense? cold and heat
What do muscle spindle organs sense? Proprioception/kinesthesia
What do Meissner corpuscles sense? Discriminative touch/ vibration
What do golgi tendon organs sense proprioception/kinesthesia
Describe the golgi reflex Alpha motor neuron contracts skeletal muscle = golgi tendon organ sends afferent signals back to spinal cord = interneuron inhibits the same alpha neuron on ventral horn
What does the golgi reflex do stops contraction/ protection from too much contraction
Describe the spindle reflex as muscle stretches so does spindal and sends afferent excitatory message to alpha motor neurons in ventral horn = Alpha motor neuron contracts same muscle to counteract the stretch
What does the spindle reflex do? Starts contraction/ protection from too much stretch
The direct pathway utilizes which type of lower motor neurons? Alpha motor neurons
The indirect pathway utilizes which type of lower motor neurons? Gamma motor neurons
Trace the path of the neurons from the eye to the brain. Where are the neurons and synapses eye - Optic nerve - Optic Chiasm - (S) Lateral geniculate Body - (S) Primary visual cortex
What information can you obtain by shining a light into someone's eye? Health of optic and occulomotor nerves (optic senses light oculomotor constricts pupil
When should you wear a concave lens to improve your vision with myopia (nearsightedness)
When should you wear a convex lens to improve your vision? with Hyperopia (far sightedness)
What are some purposes of the fovea? allows the eye to focus light for visual discrimination
Binocular portions of the visual field that are in common for both eyes
Monocular lateral portion of the visual field that is perceived by only one eye
Diplopia double vision
Scotoma blind spot in visual field
Blind Spot blind spot in retinal field where optic nerve is
Anopsias large visual field deficits
Macular sparing the loss of vision throughout wide areas of the visual field, with the exception of foveal vision
Why do we ask about otitis media during a case history for children coming into the speech hearing clinic? Because of possible hearing loss' long-term effects on auditory processing and speech and language development during critical development time
What causes otitis media inability of eustachian tubes to drain
What are treatment options for otitis media? antibiotics, myringotomy tubes
Are Auditory signals processed ipsilaterally, contralaterally, or both? both
Trace the path of an auditory signal to the brain, where are the synapes? Cochlear nerve - (S)Cranial Nerve 8 - (S) Superior Olivary Nucleus - (S) Inferior colliculus - (S) Medial geniculate body - (S)Heschel's Gyrus
Created by: ersa0501