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What bind on basal promoter sequences? transcription factors
Where is the TATA sequence located? Upstream binding region
What binds to TATA? TBP
Where is the function of the INR region and what binds to it initiating sequence and TF2D
What binds to BRE and what is its function TF2B binds to it, and positions the RNA pol II
What binds to DPE and what is its function TFIID can bind to it, and it is a downstream promoter
What starts first in the assembly of the general transcription machinery? _____ carries _____ to ______ TF2D carries TBP to TATA sequence
What happens after the TF2D and TBP bind to TATA? _______ recognizes __________ and binds in order to __________ TF2B recognizes BRE element and binds in order to position RNA Pol II
What happens after TF2B and TF2D and TBP is bound? ________ brings in _______ to _________ site TF2F brings in RNA pol II to TF2B site
Finally, _______ recruits ______ to bind to DNA. What does the latter do? (3 things) Finally, TFIIE recruits TFIIH. TFIIH unwinds DNA the the start point, phosphorylates the C-term of rna Pol II, and releases RNA pol II from the promoter
What is usually present in DNA binding domains? DNA binding motifs and a dimerization motif
What are activation domains? Protein-protein interacting domains
What can activate activation domains? Mediators and co-activators
What are types of things would a repressor domain recruit? A silencing complex or a co-repressor
What do gel shift assays do, in short? The isolate DNA binding proteins in solution to identify which fractions have a certain protein
What are gel shift assays also known as? Electromobility shift assays (EMSA)
What do chromatin immunoprecipitations do? They detect proteins attached to chromatin
What is the process of immunoprecipitations, in short? Binding proteins attach to DNA sequences in a cell. They are crosslinked with formaldehyde and the DNA is broken into small fragments. Then the protein-DNA complex can be precipitated with antibodies and amplified.
What does the mediator do Binds to activators, repressors and DNA pol II to create one big signal.
What does the chromatin remodeling complex do? (3 things) Remodels nuceosomes in terms of distance Removes histones Replaces histones
What does the histone modifying enzyme do? Methylates, phosphorylates, ubiquitinates, and acetylates histones...and can do it reversely as well
How does combinatorial regulation work? Is it more like 0 to 100% or on/off? It's more like 0 to 100%
Help with the ordering of events leading to transcription initiation. 1. _______________ activates chromosome 2. _________________ and ______________ modify respective sites 3. __________ and __________ all bind together to the _____________ 1. Gene activation protein 2. chromatin remodeling complexes and histone modification enzymes 3. Transcription factors and RNA pol II bind together to the mediator
What can repressors do? (6 things) 1. interfere with binding site of receptors 2. binds with activator and prevents binding 3. prevents an activator from binding to pre-initiation complex 4. recruit chromatin remodeling complex 5. methylate promoter region 6. histone methyll transfera
Created by: neeck