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Hematology

BC3 - Hematology Info

QuestionAnswer
Components of Blood Plasma, Serum, Additional cellular elements
Plasma liquid portion of blood; proteins, lytes, clotting factor but mostly water
Serum Clotting factor is removed; pale yellow
Cellular Elements of Blood Erythrocytes, Leukocytes, Platelets
Erythrocytes RBC - carry O2 & CO2 - help buffer; bioconcave disc shaped; flexible to squeeze; should be bright red and all one size
Leukocytes WBC - defense against infection
Platelets clotting - pieces of cells
Erythropoiseis formation of RBC's ; made in the kidneys; produced when the kidneys detect hypoxia
Reticulocytes Immature RBC's; initially made
Lifespan of a RBC 120 days
Hemolysis occurs in the spleen, liver, bone marrow, and lymph nodes; broken down & phagocytized
Bilirubin breakdown product of blood (by-product)
Neutrophils First to arrive; involved in bacterial infection; Produced in 7-14 days; Remain in circulation for 6 hours - very short lived
Eosinophils do not respond to bacterial or viral infection; Allergic response
Basophils Allergic/Inflammatory; Parasitic - do not respond to bacterial or viral infection
Monocytes BIG CELLS - arive 2nd; Can leave circulation and enter tissue - become macrophages
Platelets are necessary for coagulation - they plug holes in body to stop bleeding; made in bone marrow
Function of the spleen Produces RBC's for fetus; Filter - removes old RBC's; Recycles Iron; Stores lymphocytes and monocytes; Stores platelets
If spleen is enlarged, it is under ribs - enlarges downward under left rib cage
Lymph System includes capillaries, ducts, lymph nodes
Function of the Lymph System Carrie fluid from interstitial spaces to blood; Duct empty to veins; Nodes filter bacteria and foreign particles
Function of the Liver Filters dead RBC; Procoagulants - produces clotting factors
Geriatric Considerations tend to loose reserve capacity and RBC's become fragile & don't live long - become anemic; WBC's don't respond as well; have chronic illness = anemia;
Children Considerations RBC's have short life span - don't have same reserve as adults; Inc level of RBC in infants r/t inc need for O2; Increased role of spleen - changes to bone marrow; Newborns & Infants have ^WBC counts
Components of a CBC RBC, Hgb, Hct, Reticulocyte count
Components of Differential MCV, MCH, RBC wt, MCHC, RDW
RBC count 4.7-6.1 in males 4.2-5.4 in females
Hgb 13.5-17.5 in males 11.5-15.5 in females
Hct 40-52 in males 36-48 in females
When is a blood transfusion indicated (usually) Hgb < 8
What happens to Hct if patient is dehydrated elevates
What happens to Hct if patient is over hydrated decreases
If neutrophils are low... patient may need to be on isolation; neutropenic precautions
MCV mean corpuscular volume
What is MCV average cell volume - size "how big"; important for anemia dx
MCH mean corpuscular hemoglobin
What is MCH average cell hemoglobin - dec MCH=dec Hgb
RBC weight weighs the iron in a cell (iron weighs alot)
MCHC ratio of amount of Hgb in cell to volume - proportion; ^MCHC = too much iron; dec MCHC = dec iron
RDW RBC Distribution Width; should be uniform - if ^, something wrong with RBC, possibly anemia
Differential Shift refers to white cells
If Bands are immature immature WBC's - similar to stab cells
"Shift to the left" more immature than mature (acute)
If a "shift to the left" is ongoing indicates an acute bacterial infection
Mature Neurtophils indicate a chronic problem
"Shift to the right" indicates ongoing - increase infection, inflammation, tissue necrosis, leukemic neoplasis, also trauma/stress
Sed rate is (def) the rate at which RBC's settle in solution(
What is sed rate used for a screening tool or to monitor course of illness
Increased sed rate can indicate Inflammation, neoplasm, infection, necrosis
What do you worry about with giving a patient blood the antibody
If a patient has Type A blood they have A antigen; B antibody
If a patient has Type B blood they have B antigen; A antibody
If a patient has AB blood they have A +B antigens; no antibodies
Type AB blood is the universal recipient
A patient that has Type O blood has neither A nor B antigens; A and B antibodies
O blood is the universal donor
What is an antigen something that triggers and immune response
Bone Marrow Examinations iliac crest; done at the bedside; painful - at risk for bleeding; patient is to ly still and apply pressure for 5-10 minutes
Normocytic, Normochromic Normal cell - Normal color; could indicate lost blood
Macrocytic, Normochromic Big cell - normal color; Not hemoglobin or Fe problem; elevated MCV
Microcytic, Jypochromic Small cells - pale color; Could indicate Fe deficiency anemia; decreased MCV
Created by: okrecota
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