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Biomaterials Midterm

UBSDM 2015 Biomaterials Midterm

QuestionAnswer
Chroma Degree of Saturation of a Particular Hue
Coefficient of thermal expansion (Linear Coefficient of Expansion) Change in Length per Unit of original length of a material when temp is raised 1Kelvin
Color Sensation induced from light of varying wavelengths reaching the eye
Concentration Cell An electrochemical process in which a solid, usually a metal, is attacked by an environmental agent- Results in dissolution. typically metals
Corrosion (electro)Chemical process in which a solid *metal* is attacked by environmental agent resulting in dissolution
Creep Time-Dependent Plastic Strain of a material under a static load
Crevice Corrosion Accelerated corrosion in narrow spaces cause by local electrochemical changes. ie: acidification or O2 depletion. Common between restoration and tooth, under pellicle layer, or surface deposits
Galvanic Corrosion Accelerated attack occurring on less noble metal when electrochemically dissimilar metals are in electrical contact within a liquid corrosive environment.
Galvanic Shock Pain Sensation caused by the electric current generated when two dissimilar metals are brought into contact in the oral environment
Hardness Resistance of a material to being indented, cut, or scratched
Hue Dominant Color of an Object, for example, red, green, blue
Metamerism Phenomenon in which a color of an object under one light appears to change when illuminated by a different light source
Pitting Corrosion Highly Localized Corrosion occurring on base metals, such as iron, nickel, and chromium, which are protected by a naturally forming, thin film of an oxide. In the presence of chlorides in the environment, the film locally breaks down forming pits
Rheology Study of the deformation and flow characteristics of matter
Sag Irreversible (plastic) deformation of metal frameworks of fixed partial dentures in the firing temperature range of ceramic veneers
Stress Corrosion Degradation caused by the combined effects of mechanical stress and a corrosive environment, usually exhibited as cracking
Tarnish Process by which a metal surface is dulled or discolored when a reaction with sulfide, oxide, chloride, or other chemical causes a thin film to form
Thermal Conductivity (Coefficient of Thermal Conductivity) Property that describes the thermal energy transport in watts/sec through 1cm thick substrate with surface differences are 1Kelvin
Thixotropic Property of certain gels or other materials to become liquefied (Less Viscous) when shaken, stirred, patted, or vibrated.
Value Relative lightness or darkness of a color.
Viscosity Resistance of a fluid to flow. High Viscosity is Thicker.
Wear, Abrasion, and Erosion Loss of a material from a surface caused by a mechanical action or through a combination of chemical and mechanical actions
Brittleness Relative inability of a material to deform plastically
Compressive Stress Ratio of Compressive force to cross-sectional area perpendicular to the axis of applied force
Compressive strength Compressive stress within a compression test specimen at the point of fracture
Ductility Relative ability of a material to deform plastically under a stress before it fractures
Elastic Strain Deformation that is recovered upon removal of an externally applied force or pressure
Elastic Modulus (Modulus of Elasticity or Young's Modulus) Relative Stiffness of a material; ratio of elastic stress to elastic strain.
Flexural Stress (Bending Stress) Force per unit area of a material subjected to flexural loading
Fracture Toughness The critical stress intensity factor at the beginning of rapid crack propagation in a solid containing a crack of known shape and size.
Hardness Resistance of a material to plastic deformation typically measured under an indentation load
Percent elongation Maximum amount of plastic strain a tensile test specimen can sustain before it fractures (See Ductility)
Plastic Strain Deformation that is not recoverable when the externally applied force is removed
Pressure Force per unit area on the external surface of a material
Proportional limit Maximum Stress at which stress is proportional to strain and above which plastic deformation occurs
Resilience The relative amount of elastic energy per unit volume released on unloading of a test specimen
Shear Stress Maximum Shear stress at the point of fracture of a test specimen
True Stress Ratio of applied force to the actual cross-sectional area; however, for convenience stress is often calculated as the ration of applied force to the initial cross-sectional area
Stress Force per unit are within a structure subjected to an external force or pressure (see pressure)
Stress Concentration Area or point of significantly higher stress associated with a structural discontinuity such as a crack or pore or a marked change in dimension of a structure
Strain Change in length per unit initial length
Stress intensity factor A measure of the relative amount of increased stress at the tip of a crack of a given shape and size when the crack surfaces are displaced in the opening mode (See Fracture toughness)
Strain Hardening (Work Hardening) Increase in strength and hardness and corresponding decrease in ductility of a metal that is caused by plastic deformation
Strain Rate Change in strain per unit time during loading of a structure
Strength Maximum stress that a structure can withstand without sustaining a specific amount of plastic strain(Yield strength) or stress at the point of fracture (Ultimate Strength(See Steve Kolenda)
Tensile Strength Tensile Stress (in a tensile stress specimen) at the point of fracture
Toughness Ability of a material to absorb elastic energy and to deform plastically before fracturing; measure as the total area under a plot of tensile stress v. tensile strain
Yield Strength The Stress at which a test specimen exhibits a specific amount of plastic strain
Allergy Abnormal antigen-antibody reaction to a substance that is harmless to most individuals (See Hypersensitivity)
Biocompatibility Ability of a material to elicit an appropriate biological response in a given application in the body
Biointegration Process in which bone or other living tissue becomes integrated with an implanted material with no intervening space
Estrogenicity Ability of a chemical to act in the body in a manner similar to that of estrogen, the female sex hormone.
Hypersensitivity Abnormal clinical reaction or exaggerated immune response to a foreign substance that is manifested by follow symptoms. Breathing difficulty, erythema, itching, sneezing, swelling vesicles.
Type I-III hypersensitivity Immediate allergic reaction to a substance
Type IV-VI Hypersensitivity Delayed Allergic Reaction to a foreign substance
Osseointegration Process in which living bony tissue forms to within 100angstrom of the implant surface without any intervening fibrous connective tissue
Sensitization Process that produces an allergy antibody, which reacts specifically to a causative foreign substance
Toxicity Done-Related potential of a material to cause cell or tissue death
xenoestrogen A chemical, not indigenous to the body that acts in the body in a manner similar to that of estrogen.
Allergic Response v. Toxic Response allergic reactions tend to be dose-independent initially and disproportionate to the amount of the offending substance, whereas toxic or inflammatory reactions tend to be dose-dependent and proportional to the amount of the substance.
Mutagenic Reactions Result when the components of a material alter the base-pair sequences of the DNA in cells; termed mutations. nickel, copper, and beryllium are known mutagens
Backbone The main chain of a polymer
Block copolymer a polymer made of two or more monomer species and identical monomer units occurring in relatively long sequences along the main polymer chain
Chain transfer A stage of polymerization in which the growing end of a chain is transferred to another molecule, initiating further chain growth
Curing Chemical reaction in which low-molecular-weight monomers or small polymers are converted into higher-molecular-weight materials to attain desired properties.
Elastic Recovery Reduction or elimination of elastic strain when an applied force is removed; elastic solids recover elastic strain immediately on removal of the applied force whereas viscoelastic materials recover elastic strain over time.
Final Set Stage at which the curing process is complete
Free Radical A compound with an unpaired electron that is used to initiate polymerization
Graft or Branched Copolymer A polymer in which sequences of one type of mer unit are attached as a graft (Branched) onto the backbone of a second type of mer unit.
Initial Set (of a polymer) The stage of polymerization during which the polymer retains its shape
Induction Activation of free radical, which in turn initiate growing polymer chains
Monomer A chemical compound capable of reacting to form a polymer
Plastic Flow (of a polymer) Irreversible deformation that occurs when polymer chains slide over one another and become relocated within the material
Polymer Chemical compound consisting of large organic molecules formed by the union of many repeating smaller monomer units
Polymerization Chemical reaction in which monomers of a low molecular weight are converted into chains of polymers with a high molecular weight
Propagation Stage of polymerization during which the polymer chains continue to grow to high molecular weights
Random copolymer polymer made of two or more monomer species but with no sequential order between the mer units along the polymer chain
Setting (of a polymer) The extent to which polymerization has progressed
Thermoplastic polymer Polymeric material made of linear and/or branched chains that softens when heated above the glass-transition temp, at which molecular motion begins to force the chains apart
Thermosetting polymer Polymeric material that becomes permanently hard when heated above the temp at which it begins to polymerize and that does not soften again on reheating to same temp
Termination Stage of polymerization during which polymer chains cease to grow
Viscoelastic Ability of a polymer to behave as an elastic solid(spring) and as a viscous liquid(dashpot)
Created by: speedy2782