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Language Development

Chapters 5-7

QuestionAnswer
Bracketing – using prosodic features to highlight importance
Clustering – Use of phonemes to distinguish what sounds go together
Communication Intention – purpose of an utterance (gain information, request permission, or provide information)
Joint action – both looking at the same thing (something else); Shared action sequences between a mother and a child, often routines. Provide basis for many scripts
Mutual gaze – looking at each other
Protoconversation – vocal interactions between mothers and infants that resemble the verbal exchanges of more mature conversations
Referencing – differenciation of one entity from many; noting presence of a single object, action or event for one’s communication partner
Script – predictable structure of an event that provides “slots” for participation and aids comprehension
Social smile – Infant’s smile in response to external social stimulus
What are some garegiver roles • Superior flexibility of timing and anticipates infant’s behavior • Has an intuitive curriculum and leads the infant’s behavior slightly • Is able to monitor and code her changes of expression more rapidly than the infant • Can alternate among differe
what are 2 strategies infants use to segregate speech directed at them 1. Bracketing – use of prosodic or rhythmic cues to highlight importance 2. Clustering - use of phonemes to distinguish what sounds go together
Analogy – a pattern-finding technique that accounts for how children create abstract syntactic constructions from concrete pieces of language by understanding the schemes
Bootstrapping – Process of learning language in which the child uses what he or she knows to decode more mature language. (child may use semantic knowledge to aid in decoding and learning syntax
Contingent Query – Request for clarification (what, huh?)
Entrenchment – A pattern finding technique that accounts for how children confine abstractions about language by doing something in the same way successfully several times, thus making it habitual
Evocative Utterances – Toddler language-learning strategy in which the child names an entity and awaits adult evaluative feedback as to the correctness of the name or label
Expansion – Adult’s more mature version of a child utterance. (doggie eat….the doggie is eating)
Extension – Adult’s semantically related comment on a topic established by a child (doggie eat…..yes doggie hungry)
Formula – Memorized verbal routine or unanalyzed chunk of language often used in everyday conversation
Functionally based distributional analysis – A pattern finding technique that accounts for how children form linguistic categories such as nouns and verbs based on communicative function. linguistic items that serve the same communicative function are grouped together into a category based they do
Hypothesis-testing Utterance – Toddler language-learning strategy in which the child seeks confirmation of the name of an entity by naming it with rising intonation, thus posing a yes/no question
Intention-reading – A uniquely human social cognitive skill used in understanding language behavior of others
Interrogative utterances – Toddler language-learning strategy in which the child attempts to learn the name of an entity by asking What? That? Or Wassat? Not to be confused with the adult interrogative sentences that are more varied (What, Where, Who, Why, How, When)
Motherese – Style of taking used most often by white middle class American mothers when addressing their 18-24 month old toddlers
Pattern-finding – A cognitive skill humans share with other primates that enables us to find common threads in disparate information (seeking underlying rules for language)
Reformulation – Adult recasting of a child’s utterance that makes it more grammatically correct, adds new information, or changes the form
Request for Clarification – Request from the listener for restatement of or additional information on some unclear utterance of the speaker
Schematization – A pattern-finding technique that accounts for how children create abstract syntactic constructions from concrete pieces of language they have heard by forming schemes or concepts for specific functions and individual words to fill the slots in each
Selective imitation – Toddler language-learning strategy in which the child imitates those language features that he/she is in the process of learning. Toddlers do not imitate randomly.
Turnabout – Conversational device used by a mother with a preschooler to maintain the conversation and aid the child in making on-topic comments. In its usual form it consists of a comment on or reply to the child’s utterance followed by a cue (leading)
associatine complex hypothesis theory that each example of a meaning category shares something with a core concept. Common elements in hat, shoes, coat (things you wear) -Vygotsky
Consonant/cluster reduction Phonological process seen in preschool children in which one or more consonants is deleted from a cluster of two or more in order to simplify production
Fast Mapping quicky, sketchy and tentative information of a link between a particular referent and a new name that neables a child to have access to and use that word if in a limited way
Functional Core Hypothesis Theory that word meanings represent dynamic relationships such as actions or functional uses rather than static perceptual traits
holophrase Early one-word utterances that convey a holistic communicative intention
item-based construction Two word utterances seemingly based on word order rules with specific words influenced by how a child has heard a particular word being used
Language socialization Process of learning language and culture through interactions with caregivers and others. Language is central to process of learning culture and cultural patterns teach children the appropriate way to communicate
Lexicon Individual dictionary of each person containing words and the underlying concepts of each. - dynamic, changing with experience
neighborhood density The number of possible words that differ by one phoneme and a factor characteristic in shaping a child's emerging lexical system
open syllable Syllable, usually CV, ending in a vowel
otitis media middle ear infection
overextension Process in which a child applies a word's meaning to more exemplars than an adult would. The child's definition is too broad and is thus beyond acceptable adult usage
phonotactic probability The likelihood of phonemes appearing together and/or in certain locations in words
pivot schema 2 word utterances where one word/phrase (want, more) seems to structure the utterance by determining the intent of the utterance as a whole (demands) (more...juice, cookie, apple)
presupposition Process of assuming which information a listener possesses or may need
Prototypic complex hypothesis Theory that word meanings represent an underlying concept exemplified by a central referent, or prototype, that is a best exemplar or composite of the concept
reduplication Phonological process in which child repeats one syllable in a multi-syllabic word (wawa for water)
semantic feature hypothesis Theory that word meanings represent universal semantic features or attributes (animate/inanimate ; male/female) for younger children meanings represent perceptual attributes
underextension Process in which a child applies a word meaning to fewer exemplars than an adult would - child's definition is too restrictive and more limited than in adult use
word combination 2-word utterance consisting of roughly equivalent words that divide an experience into multiple units
Phonology Aspect of language concerned with the rules governing the structure, distribution and sequencing of speech-sound patterns
Morphology Aspect of language concerned with rules governing change in meaning at the intra-word level
Syntax Organizational rules specifying word order, sentence organization, and word relationships
Semantics Aspect of language concerned with rules governing the meaning or content of words or grammatical units
Pragmatics Aspect of language concerned with language use within a communication context
What language aspects are concerned with form? Phonology, morphology, syntax
What language aspect is concerned with content Semantics
What language aspect is concerned with function? Pragmatics
Created by: ersa0501