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Unit IV Chapter 22

Respiratory-Human Body Health and Illness

Alveolus tiny grapelike sack in the lungs; the site of gas exchange (oxygen and carbon dioxide) between the air and the blood
Bronchus large airway in the lungs that connects the trachea and bronchioles; there is a left and a right bronchus
Bronchioles small airway tubes in the respiratory tract; composed largely of smooth muscle
Compliance the measure of elastic recoil
Epiglottis cartilage that guards the opening into the larynx; directs food and water into the esophagus
Exhalation process of moving air out of the lungs; the breathing out phase of ventilation, aka expiration
Glottis opening between the vocal cords; an air passage in for the respiratory tract
Inhalation process of moving air into the lungs; the breathing in phase of ventilation, aka inspiration
Larynx structure that contains the vocal cords; voice box
Partial pressure pressure exerted by one gas in a gas mixture
Pleura serous membrane located in the thoracic cavity. There is a visceral pleura and a parietal pleura
Surfactants chemical substance that reduces surface tension, thereby preventing the collapse of alveoli
Tidal volume amount of air inhaled and exhaled during one ventilator cycle
Trachea large airway located between the larynx and bronchus; windpipe
Ventilation moving air into and/or out of the lungs; two phases inhalation (breathing in) and exhalation (breathing out)
Vital capacity the greatest amount of air that can be exhaled following maximal inhalation
Aka the windpipe, it is a strong cartilaginous tube that conducts air to and from the lungs trachea
A respiratory structure that communicates with the middle ear by the Eustachian tube pharynx
The Adam’s apple or thyroid cartilage is most associated with this structure larynx
The epiglottis directs food and water from the respiratory passages into this structure esophagus
Called the throat pharynx
Called the voice box because it contains the vocal cords larynx
The point at which the trachea splits; the area is extremely sensitive and elicits coughing when stimulated carina
Located between the larynx and the bronchi and in front of the esophagus trachea
Composed of three parts (naso, oro, and laryngo) pharynx
Large tube that splits into bronchi trachea
These small structures located within the bronchial tree are composed primarily of smooth muscle bronchioles
The exchange of the respiratory gases between the air and blood occurs here alveoli
Large, soft, cone shaped organs that contain the respiratory passages and pulmonary capillaries; they fill most of the thoracic cavity lungs
Because of smooth muscle, this structure can contract and relax, thereby causing constriction and dilation bronchioles
The olfactory receptors are located within these cavities nasal cavities
Mucus drains into the nasal cavities from these structures located in the head paranasal sinuses
The trachea splits into the right and left bronchi
Small respiratory passages that deliver oxygen to the alveoli bronchioles
Structures partially encircled by the pulmonary capillaries alveoli
Called the resistance vessels arterioles
Structures that contain surfactants alveoli
Separated by the nasal septum nasal cavities
The space between the vocal cords glottis
Respiratory structure with the largest cross sectional area; designed for gas exchange lungs
Structure that delivers air to the bronchi trachea
Pulmonary capillaries partially surround these grapelike structures alveoli
Structure that delivers oxygen to the alveoli bronchiole
Lung structure concerned with the exchange of O2 and CO2 alveoli
Apex of the lung top of the lung
Trachea branches into these large structures primary bronchi
Base of the lung bottom
Grapelike structures that contain surfactants alveoli
Windpipe; kept open by rings of cartilage trachea
Large tubes that deliver air to the bronchioles primary bronchi
Membrane on the outer surface of each lung visceral pleura
Space between the visceral and parietal pleural membranes; aka a potential space intrapleural space
Muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity diaphragm
Areas between the two lungs; contains other thoracic structures such as the heart, large blood vessels, and the trachea mediastinum
Dome shaped muscle that is the chief muscle of inhalation diaphragm
For the lungs to remain expanded, the pressure must be negative in this area intrapleural space
Contains the pleural cavity, pericardial cavity, and the mediastinum thoracic cavity
Skeletal muscles between the ribs; move the rib cage up and out during inhalation intercostals
A pneumothorax occurs when air enters this area intrapleural space
Neurotransmitter at the neuro muscular junction (NMJ) (diaphragm and phrenic nerve) acetylcholine (Ach)
A combination of tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, and expiratory reserve volume; about 4600 mL vital capacity
The amount of air that remains in the lungs after the exhalation of the expiratory reserve volume; about 1200 mL; this air cannot be exhaled residual volume
An instrument that measures pulmonary volumes spirometer
The amount of air moved into or out of the lungs with each breath; the average is 500 mL tidal volume
The amount of air you can inhale after a normal inhalation; about 3000 mL inspiratory reserve volume
A pulmonary capacity that is the maximal amount of air exhaled following maximal inhalation vital capacity
The additional volume of air that you can exhale after normal exhalation expiratory reserve volume
The volume of air that you move during normal quiet breathing residual volume
The air that remains in the conducting spaces of the respiratory tract; it is unavailable for exchange; about 150 mL dead air space
The following are instructions for its use, “take the deepest breath possible. Exhale all the air you possibly can into this tube” spirometer
The alveoli are grapelike sacs located very close to the pulmonary capillaries, primarily concerned with gas exchange, located in the lungs
Bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli are all located within the lungs
The epiglottis prevents food and water from entering the respiratory passages
The amount of air maximally exhaled following maximal inhalation expiratory reserve volume
The trachea does not collapse because it is composed of tough cartilaginous rings
In the absence of surfactants it is difficult to open the alveoli
The effect of contractions of the diaphragm and intercostal muscles increases the volume of the thoracic cavity
The phrenic nerve stimulates the diaphragm to contract
The transport mechanism that causes the respiratory gases to move across the alveolar pulmonary capillary membrane diffusion
The stab wound to the chest can cause the lung to collapse because the intrapleural pressure increases
Boyle’s law states when volume increases, pressure decreases
Most oxygen is transported in the blood via hemoglobin
Most carbon dioxide (70%) is transported in the blood via bicarbonate
The medullary respiratory control center is sensitive to the depressant effects of narcotics
What in the blood will increase the rate of breathing CO2
By age 70, vital capacity has decreased by what percent 33%
What is the effect of left lower lobar pneumonia and atelectasis on breathing is there are fewer alveoli available for gas exchange
What is an underlying cause of fever infection
What does the body do in an attempt to clear the respiratory passages cough
The structures that are called the throat, voice box, and the windpipe are pharynx, larynx, trachea
What are the terms that describe the breathing in and out phases of ventilation (4) inhalation/inspiration and exhalation/expiration
What are the respiratory gases oxygen and carbon dioxide
What two serous membranes are located within the thoracic cavity parietal pleura and visceral pleura
Maximal exhalation following maximal inhalation vital capacity
What is the grapelike respiratory structure concerned with the exchange of O2 and CO2 alveolus
What is it when the volume increases and pressure decreases Boyle’s law
What is the primary muscle of inhalation and its motor nerve the diaphragm and the phrenic nerve
What is the amount of air moved during normal quiet breathing tidal volume
What is the color consequence of hypoxemia cyanosis
What is the only structure that functions in the exchange of the respiratory gases between the outside are air and the blood alveoli
What is the passage of air from the nasal cavities, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli
What is the pulmonary capillary membrane the alveolar
What contains the structures of the lower respiratory tract the lungs
What happens if the pressure conditions in the pleural cavity are not correct the lungs collapse
What factors have a tendency to make the lungs collapse elastic recoil and alveolar surface tension
What is the expansion of the lungs caused by a negative intrapleural pressure within the intrapleural space
If the negative intrapleural pressure is eliminated what happens the lungs collapse
What are the three steps in respiration ventilation, exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the lungs and cells, and transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide by the blood
What causes changes in intrapulmonic pressure changes in thoracic volumes which cause ventilation
Inhalation occurs when the respiratory muscles contract and enlarge the thoracic cage
Exhalation occurs when the respiratory muscles relax, allowing the thorax to return to its smaller, resting thoracic volume
The muscles of respiration contract in response to stimulation of the phrenic and intercostal nerves
What two sites does the exchange of the respiratory gases occur in the lungs and in the cells
Oxygen diffuses from the alveoli into the pulmonary capillaries
Carbon dioxide diffuses from the pulmonary capillaries into the alveoli
At the cellular sites, oxygen diffuses from the capillaries into the cells
Carbon dioxide diffuses from the cells into the capillaries
Blood transports oxygen and carbon dioxide
Hemoglobin carries most of the oxygen as oxyhemoglobin
The blood carries most of the carbon dioxide in the form of a bicarbonate ion (HCO3)
Normal breathing is rhythmic and involuntary
What controls breathing nervous and chemical mechanisms
Where are the inspiratory and expiratory neurons located in the medulla oblongata
What can modify breathing patterns apneustic center and pneumotaxic center in the pons
Chemicals in the blood help control respirations
The central chemoreceptors in the brain are sensitive to carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions
The peripheral chemoreceptors are sensitive to low blood levels of oxygen and an increase in the hydrogen ion concentration
What is the major regulator of respirations pCO2
The number of alveoli does what with age decreases
What happens with many of the protective mechanisms of the respiratory system as we age they decline and place the older patient at a greater risk for respiratory infections
Created by: 100002251654686